awk - sample

$(/sbin/ifconfig -a | /usr/bin/awk 'BEGIN {ips=""} /inet/ && $2 !~ /127.0.0/ {ips=ips", "$2} END {print substr(ips,3)}')

can some one explain me how BEGIN and END works with awk?

what is IPS?

I also want to know how above line executes?
ittechlabLinux SupportAsked:
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simon3270Connect With a Mentor Commented:
The line is in three parts.

BEGIN {ips=""}
/inet/ && $2 !~ /127.0.0/ {ips=ips", "$2}
END {print substr(ips,3)}

The BEGIN part initialises a variable called "ips" to the empty string, before any lines are read from the "ifconfig" command.

The second part is the body of the awk script - the line processes each input line in turn.  It looks for the string "inet" anywhere on the line, and also looks for the second field on the line "$2") not matching ("!~") the pattern "127.0.0".  If both of these are true (i.e. inet is found, and field 2 idoes not match 127.0.0), it adds a comma and a space to the end of the ips variable, then adds the second input field (here an IP address) to the end of ips too.  It will repeat this for each input line, so as it finds "inet" lines which are not for the loopback address, it adds the IP addresses to the "ips" variable.

The END part is processed after all of the lines in the input text have been read.  At this time, "ips" will contain all of the non-loopback IP addresses of the interfaces on the machine, with ", " between them, and starting with ", ", e.g. ", 192.168.0.1, 10.4.33.22, 169.54.34.2".  It prints out the value of "ips", starting from the third character so that it skips the the comma and space which start ips.
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ozoCommented:
man awk
...
       A pattern-action statement has the form

              pattern { action }
...
       The  special  patterns  BEGIN  and END may be used to capture control before the first input line is read and after the last.  BEGIN and END do not combine
       with other patterns.
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tel2Commented:
Hi ittechlab,

I agree with what the experts above have said, but would add that in this example, the:
  BEGIN {ips=""}
section seems to be unnecessary because in awk, variables can be referenced and appended (e.g. {ips=ips", "$2}) even if they have not been explicitly initialised to "" beforehand.

So, this should do the same thing (and based on my tests, it does):
    $(/sbin/ifconfig -a | /usr/bin/awk '/inet/ && $2 !~ /127.0.0/ {ips=ips", "$2} END {print substr(ips,3)}')
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