Oracle 11g - Set SYS & SYSTEM password after initial install

I'm a MSSQL guy trying to learn Oracle.  So, I am installing Oracle 11g using the universal installer and it installs without issue.  My issue is I never set a password for SYSTEM or SYS and don't know what they are.

When I install MSSQL, I can log into the instance with the local user account I installed it with HOST\INSTANCE and it uses windows authentication, then I can go in and create users and setup passwords and roles and such.

Can someone help me understand, after an installation of Oracle what I do to get to the same point?  During installation there is no prompt for default password for SYSTEM or SYS.  How do I go and set them after an install?  What are the prerequisites prior to this if any?

Thanks in advance
andrej770Asked:
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andrej770Author Commented:
Instead of installing Oracle as "Software Only"  I installed it with and created a dummy database at the same time.  Installing it this way setup all the users automatically AND allowed me to set a password.

Thanks to all those that offered other solutions.
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Sam Simon NasserIT Support ProfessionalCommented:
as simple as:
SQL> connect / as sysdba
 
SQL> alter user <username> identified by <password>;

Open in new window

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ThommyCommented:
If your OS user is a member of DBA group, you can login as SYS using operating system authentication: sqlplus / as sysdba

Default passwords of Oracle 11g
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andrej770Author Commented:
How to d

When I run sqlplus by itself in an Administrator elevated Windows command prompt, I get:

C:\Users\Administrator>sqlplus

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.3.0 Production on Fri Jun 7 08:44:54 2013

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Enter user-name:

----------------------------------
When I run sqlplus / as sysdba  in an Administrator elevated Windows command prompt, I get:


C:\Users\Administrator>sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.3.0 Production on Fri Jun 7 08:48:11 2013

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

ERROR:
ORA-12560: TNS:protocol adapter error


Enter user-name:
----------------------------------

I know in SQL I have to setup the ports and named pipes and such so that the instance is listening on certain ports.  Is setting up the TNS:protocol a prerequisite?  If so, provide the prerequisite steps.
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Geert GOracle dbaCommented:
looks like you installed the software only
> this is the first step for oracle, and doesn't require sys or system password

the next step is to create a database
> this requires a sys/system password

after you installed the software (you probably gave the location .(c:\program files\oracle\etc)
look in the bin folder and start dbca
> this tool will let you create a database
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andrej770Author Commented:
Wait...

So in Oracle, you have to have a database BEFORE you have a admin user for the Oracle instance?  Or am I missing something?
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DavidSenior Oracle Database AdministratorCommented:
Yes.  During the database creation a few overhead user accounts (SYS, SYSTEM, et.al.) are created by default.  When the database is later mounted and opened, you then have an instance.

And, since you don't remember what you entered when prompted, try:

SYS: change_on_install
SYSTEM: manager

Lastly, you initially asked about how to create users.  To supplement the answers above, here's a good source that gives a better explaination: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/9447492/how-to-create-a-user-in-oracle-11g-and-grant-permissions
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andrej770Author Commented:
@dvz - Thanks for your response, but the reason I come here, and award points, is for the answer not for a suggestion on how to search for the answer.  What's the point in awarding the points then?? :-)

So, I'll ask again, after the initial install of oracle, what are the prerequisite steps to being able to set the password for SYS and SYSTEM.  My current windows administrator user is in the ora_dba user group but the "as sysdba" still brings up the error:

ERROR:
ORA-12560: TNS:protocol adapter error

Trying to figure this out on my own, I read the documentation on how to create the LISTENER using the Net Configuration Assistant.  A listener service was successfully created in the "services" of windows and started successfully on the default port 1521.  When I do a netstat -a I see that a service is running and listening on port 1521.

Still get :

ERROR:
ORA-12560: TNS:protocol adapter error

Thanks.
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andrej770Author Commented:
Though there were observations that I possibly could have been installing the software only, there was no suggestion not to to get to the solution.
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Geert GOracle dbaCommented:
installing the oracle database software is the first step
after this you have:
  > $(oracle home) > a path to the location of the installed software
  > the binaries in $(oracle home)\bin for setting up databases, listeners, etc

the setup tool can do both items sequentially,
first installing the software and then setting up the database

a comparison:
consider windows itself like the oracle database software
notepad.exe could then be your database

notepad.exe uses windows for all the administration, like writing data to disk, retrieving data from disk, displaying objects on screen etc ...

oracle database (ot the instance) uses the oracle software for the administration of writing data to disk, retrieving data from disk, supplying the output to the oracle client, etc

you typically need:
backend:
> oracle software in an oracle home
>> oracle database running from that oracle home
>> a listener to provide connection to that database

frontend
> an application: example: excel
> an oracle client: odbc connection

the link between the two: the connection string
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