Long Range Wireless Outdoor System Design

Posted on 2013-06-23
Last Modified: 2013-07-14
Hi Experts,

My Department group was given a project to interconnect our offices around the city. Most are 1 to 2km and line of sight. But there are a couple that is 20 to 25km away, one has no line of sight. This will be a secondary backbone from our usual TELCO connections.

Can you give me some helpfull links regarding long range wireless design to aide my reasearch. This is to avoid my worries of purchasing wrong equipments , not to buy overkill specification, and a possible option to consider mid-price brand that has high end specification.

Need to understand more regarding, Antenna, power db and dbi, Outdoor pole structure, how packets are handle when passing a bridge mode Wireless, Isotrophic direction, manipulation in the device's Antenna.

Thank You,

Question by:kidrock009
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LVL 64

Assisted Solution

btan earned 350 total points
ID: 39271636
actually you may want to delve into use of WiMAX (wiki is your friend to jump start)

WiMAX cannot deliver 70 Mbit/s over 50 kilometers (31 mi). Like all wireless technologies, WiMAX can operate at higher bitrates or over longer distances but not both. Operating at the maximum range of 50 km (31 mi) increases bit error rate and thus results in a much lower bitrate. Conversely, reducing the range (to under 1 km) allows a device to operate at higher bitrates.

Another quick one is this and plenty of section (see the left side in the website)

Also the WiMAX forum is a good resource

e.g. See the doc below
WiMAX Forum® Network Architecture Release 1.0 Version 4 - Stage 2: Architecture Tenets, Reference Model and Reference Points

e.g. See the case study and deployment

e.g. registry of product

Author Comment

ID: 39274284
Thanks for the info Breadtan.

Any other suggestion experts. If its ok to suggest a brand in this forum, then much better


LVL 26

Assisted Solution

by:Fred Marshall
Fred Marshall earned 150 total points
ID: 39275018
You should probably consider the more "commercial" wireless link products.  "Backhaul" mighg be a useful keyword to search with.
WLAN Parts might be a good company to start with.
Some of these products aren't much more money than commodity devices and some are very expensive.
Range with line of sight depends on the antenna and power.  Larger dishes are likely for 24km.  Pay attention to the ranges advertised.
Some are licensed and some are not.  
You may find Mikrotik products are suitable in some cases.

Consider that you may well want to have "dual" devices in the following sense:
- there will be a "radio"/antenna for the long-distance link.
- there will be a "radio"/antenna for the local connection OR the local connection will start out WIRED and any local client wireless will be separately provided.
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LVL 64

Accepted Solution

btan earned 350 total points
ID: 39276683
Another experiential paper for Long Distance 802.11b Links

For most of our experiments, we used the Senao 2511CD
plus ext2 PCMCIA cards based on the Prism2 chipset as the
WiFi radio. This card has external connectors to connect to
an external antenna via a pigtail connector. We also used
the miniPCI version of the card in one of the experiments.

We used the Soekris ( platform with
Pebble Linux ( to insert and
use these cards. The Soekris platform is popular in sev-
eral outdoor community networks. Further, the platform is
ideal for us in terms of form-factor, as well as lower power
consumption than conventional laptops or computers. We
could simply use a 12V battery with a capacity of 32AH,
with a voltage stabilizer circuit to power up the Soekris (see
Table 1). This setup was sufficient to power the platform for
about three days, which was convenient for our long-running
experiments. Its physical security could also be more easily
guaranteed (as compared to laptops) at the various sites.
We used the net4521 model of Soekris for most of our ex-
periments, and net4501 for one of the experiments. All of
these use a removable compact flash for system installation
and data storage.

We used the open-source HostAP driver v0.3.7 in our
setup. For our experiments, we required the functionality of
being able to learn per-packet information. Such per-packet
information includes: (a) the received signal strength, (b)
the silence value (energy level just before packet reception),
(c) the modulation used for the packet, (d) MAC packet
type and sub-type, (e) whether or not the CRC check suc-
ceeded, (f) MAC address information, (g) MAC sequence
number information.

Author Comment

ID: 39324361
Thank You for the suggestion guys. I also can use parabolic Antenna to extend the range of my Outdoor Wireless Bridge/AP
LVL 26

Expert Comment

by:Fred Marshall
ID: 39324860
If it's a bridge then yes.  If it's an access point then the antenna is highly directional so if you also need to have coverage for clients around the AP then that could be a problem.  But, I'm pretty unclear as to what you're planning re: details.

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