ipv4 routing defragment and not hierarchical

Hello experts,

I read some articles and it said that ipv4 is not efficient as it is not design with the hierarchical structure in place (like ipv6) and the routes are fragmented. That is the reason why we have so many routes in the routing table on the Internet routers.
I will really appreciate if you can elaborate on that. Thanks
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leblancAccountingAsked:
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surbabu140977Commented:
It is not entirely true. It should be put on like this: -- Proper aggregation of ipv4 has not taken place from the beginning of internet because no one foresaw this boom. Hence the number of ipv4 routes in today's world is around +450K. If proper aggregation would have been done from the beginning, this number would have been reduced to half.

Ipv6, since it's a startup now, might not have this issue since we already learnt a lesson for our ipv4 mistake.

It's not a ipv4 drawback, it's our fault how we designed and executed the ipv4 allocation.

Best,
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nociSoftware EngineerCommented:
IPv6 doesn't mandate it, the organisations around issuing addresses mandate it.
When those organisations realized it was needed for IPv4 it was too late.
IPv6 addresses are better organised partly because more modern usage is taken into account like multicast.
The naming of things in IPv6 make it more "logical" to have aggregates. Like the notion of "Prefix" in stead of address vs. network. believe me if you like you can create an even bigger mess in IPv6 then in IPv4.
Part of it would be if users get a SINGLE endpoint address like in IPv4 and bringing NAT back into the picture.....
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Soulja53 6F 75 6C 6A 61 Commented:
I Believe it is true. If it were for NAT and the private addressing schema, we would have run out of addresses a long time ago. So yes, IPV4 is inefficient. Imagine the routing tables without NAT?
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nociSoftware EngineerCommented:
Effectively NAT only added about 10 or 12 bits at best to available addressing with a LOT of hindrance.
Ever looked into SIP protocol packets, they are a nightmare now.
just to support crossing borders. Including extra protocols to just find out the external address, which comes in several variaties because some router manufacturers when into the 2nd guessing game on it...
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leblancAccountingAuthor Commented:
"Proper aggregation of ipv4 has not taken place from the beginning of internet", can you elaborate on this?
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nociSoftware EngineerCommented:
well the first 40 or so IT giants got a complete /8 range to toy around with..
then they started handing out /24 to other..., later carving them even smaller.
Or slightly larger for entities that needed more (/12, or /16 for ISP's).
Then they decided on the private address spaces and then carve up to whoever asked for a range.

it could have helped if say addresses range 1-63 = N+S America's, 64-126 Europe + Africa
128-190 Asia.  + AU
With address range i mean the first byte (1.x.x.x--49.x.x.x) and further subdivided into more local regions.  Geography + topology should be leading in the carving up.
That would cut down a lot on routes need to describe all cross links.
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