Iptables - How many non udp/tcp protocols exist and where can I get a list on the Internet

Given:
The top two rules of my iptables config file:
target     prot opt source               destination        
ACCEPT     all  --  anywhere             anywhere            
ACCEPT     all  --  anywhere             anywhere            state RELATED,ESTABLISHED

What are they saying ?  First open everything up from anywhere to anywhere but
what am I opening up besides udp and tcp protocols  what does all include exactly??

Also on the same page I would love to find a book that only covers iptables which is not a cheat sheet book. I mean something that really explains how it functions would be nice.
I have a basic understanding but more knowledge never hurts
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Robert SilverSr. Software EngineerAsked:
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Daniel HelgenbergerCommented:
As for iptables, the keyword all does include:
tcp
udp
udplite
icmp
esp
ah
sctp

The first rule allows everything, since 'block' is the default action.
The second rule (which will in your case never be used because ip rules are evaluated on first match basis) is a default 'anti lockout rule'. This will allow any existing connections (established) nor new connections from existing  connections/sockets (related) to continue if not otherwise allowed.
This rule is important for instance when your only access to a system would be ssh and you turn on iptables with a wrong rule witch would block ssh traffic. You would be locked out from your system forcing you to have physical access to it to turn off the bad iptables rule.

As for a guide, first read about firewalls/network filters in general (all work basically the same) and then iptables in special, this might be why you only find cheat sheets. All the important stuff is covered in iptables man pages.

Please also read:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firewall_(computing)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transport_layer
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_layer
http://www.centos.org/docs/4/html/rhel-rg-en-4/s1-iptables-options.html
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