How to start study Microsoft Sharepoint programming and design?

My company want to use Microsoft Sharepoint for implement internal office automation workflows, such as HR leave apply, petty cash claim forms, etc....

We are now using Sharepoint 2007  foundation(Most services) and 2010 foundation(Secondary). And may upgrade to 2013 foundation version at end of 2014.
I want to study how to do the workflow programming by ASP.NET with Visio Studio, and we do not have any budget for ugrade Sharepoint server to standard version or licenses.

Which version of ASP.NET should i start to study? .Net 2 or 3.5 or 4.5?
Because some books said that Sharepoint 2007 is using .Net 2 only.  Is there any conflicts or compatibilty if i use .NET 4.5? Such as some functions or codes will failed.  I want to use Sharepoint 2007 foundation for implement some workflows first and then move to Sharepoint 2010 foundation or 2013 foundation later.

Which one should i focus on between C# and VB in ASP.NET?
Is it correct about C# is very difficult but if i want to write apps for  iPhone/Android in the fucture, C# is worth to study. And VB is easy but only cab be run on Windows.

Could someone kindly tell me which is better for a newbie on programming?
Many thanks.
dickchanAsked:
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Rainer JeschorConnect With a Mentor Commented:
Hi,

first of all: .NET language:
Both C# AND VB.NET can natively only run on Windows systems. If you want to write apps in the future for iOS and Android, you will have to learn other languages as well - so it does not really matter what you start for learning .NET.
I started with VB and then ASP programming, but I find C# now easier to code with - but thats just my personal experience.

In regards to workflows:
SharePoint Foundation 2013 does NOT support the new Workflow model
(http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/jj819267.aspx#bkmk_FeaturesOnPremise)
so you are stuck to Worflows running in .NET 3.5:
http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/office/ms416312.aspx

So any workflow you program in .NET 4.5 will not run in SharePoint foundation 2013.

HTH
Rainer
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