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stack vs heap for vector

Posted on 2014-01-02
Last Modified: 2014-01-03
I have the following structure
class MyClass {
std::vector<struct_1> struct_list_1;
std::vector<struct_2 *> struct_list_2


class MainClass {
    MyClass obj;

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If I keep on pushing elements to both the vectors, does the run stores everything on stack or heap? I just want to make sure, it does not run out of stack space.
Question by:perlperl
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LVL 86

Accepted Solution

jkr earned 300 total points
ID: 39752994
All allocations within a std::vector will be made on the heap, thus leaving your stack space alone - nothing to worry about it. This is one of the charming aspects of containers ;o)

Just as a side note, if your vector varies in size a lot, you might want to consider using a 'list' instead, since that will reduce the chances of heap fragmentation when you store a lot of data in it.
LVL 40

Assisted Solution

evilrix earned 200 total points
ID: 39753283
I'd strongly recommend pushing items by value unless you plan to use smart pointers. If you push items by pointer you'll either have to manage a separate list of them or allocate them on the heap first. This then means you'll have to be sure to free up these items before the vector destructs or you'll leak memory (each item in the vector).

My article about STL containers and which to choose for different jobs may be helpful. It discusses the difference between the different containers (including list and vector, as jkr has alluded) and helps you choose the right one for the job at hand.

LVL 40

Expert Comment

ID: 39753292
>> since that will reduce the chances of heap fragmentation when you store a lot of data in it.
I don't know that it'll help with fragmentation (it might actually make it worse since list allocates separately for each item whereas the vector's memory is contiguous) but if you are doing lots of appends and you can't pre-size the vector at the start (because you can't estimate how big it will grow) you might find a list is better.

That said, I would nearly always choose a vector over a list as 9 times out of 10 it will be more efficient in terms of memory usage and performance. The amortised time for appending, in both cases, is O(1), and whilst the vector does need to resize if it exceeds its internal buffer, this normally uses a power of 2 strategy (it doubles in size each time), which is generally efficient enough for most circumstances. On resize (and only on resize) the asymptotic time for appending to a vector is O(N), where N is the current size of the vector.

Personally, I'd start with a vector and consider a list only if profiling suggested the vector wasn't performant enough.

Just my 2 cents :)
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Author Comment

ID: 39753786
Thats a really nice document. Its very helpful

But isn't deque much better (instead of list) than vector. As it provides pretty much all functionality that vector does (except reserve and capacity which I don't even use in my case).  In my case I only insert in the back (no insertion or deletion in the middle)

Also good thing about deque is it doesn't use continous memory like vector and growing a deque is much efficient than vector.
LVL 40

Expert Comment

ID: 39753882
>> But isn't deque much better (instead of list) than vector.
It depends. Generally, vector is the best generic container and when you're not sure which to use start with a vector and use profiling to determine if you need to change. If your use case specifically draws on the benefits of another container then it is certainly worth trying that too. Ultimately, it's better to profile than to guess but if you have to guess then vector is normally your best first choice.

FWIW, The C++ Standard, section 23.1.1, says:

"vector is the type of sequence that should be used by default... deque is the data structure of choice when most insertions and deletions take place at the beginning or at the end of the sequence."
LVL 40

Expert Comment

ID: 39753891
Herb Sutter has an interesting view on this. Who am I to argue with him? :)


Author Comment

ID: 39753981
Earlier yesterday I read the same article and thought deque was best ;)

It seems at the end of the day different people have different views on STL. As you said one should profile and use the appropriate one :)


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