how do ms access indexes work

Just what to how what method does Access use to retrieve records. That is, read entire index first then retrieve related records.  And how

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Jim Dettman (Microsoft MVP/ EE MVE)President / OwnerCommented:
It's complicated.   JET has a number of options depending on the types of indexes, fields involved, etc.

In general, it uses indexes when it can, which are ISAM indexes.   It uses some (but not all) of the Rushmore optimizations from Visual Fox Pro.  Indexes may be intersected, Unioned, or counted and compared.  When performing joins between tables, there are five different join strategies that can be used.

 Resorting to a scan of the table (reading the data records) is always a last resort (and not always the case as some believe).

To see the costing plan that JET/ACE uses, you need to turn on JETSHOW plan.   With SHOWPLAN on, a text output file will be created when JET executes a query.   It will not revel the costing plan of any nested or sub queries.


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In general, the answer to your part about reading the entire index, the answer is usually no.  any query that causes the system to read every index entry would then read every table entry and that would be inefficient.  if it cannot efficiently seek down to a few entries in the index relative to the table, it will usually just skip the index and go read the whole table.

Edited by JDettman - Link policy.
DatabaseMX (Joe Anderson - Microsoft Access MVP)Database Architect / Systems AnalystCommented:
Further ....

Note that indexes can be a double edge sword. Whereas they will (usually) most definitely speed up searches and filtering - almost like magic sometimes,  each time you add or delete a record, all indexes in the table have to be updated by Jet. So, if you have several hundred thousand records, then the updating time could be significant, depending on various aspects of your system and/or network connection is there is one, etc.

Indexing can be somewhat of an art form.  The bottom line is be judicious in your use of indexes. Don't just randomly index fields for no reason. In addition, test the effectiveness of your indexes on test (or live) datasets that represent the amount of data you expect to encounter ... and see for yourself how they affect performance, good or bad.

What is the reason for your question?
Are you searching for a way to speed up your queries?

Typically, we don't worry too much about how the index works.  We just know the "good rules" to apply (don't index on everything, use numbers for primary keys and such, avoid index of long text fields, etc.)

Scott C
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