outlook 2010, exchange 2010. DNS

how email flows when you press send button in your outlook 2010 to users in your organization  through exchange 2010 installed in your premises

also how email flows when you send email from gmail or yahoo to an email address which has exchange 2010 and outlook installed in your organization
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What happens in case you send an e-mail internally is that your Outlook send the mail to your Exchange server, the server checks to see if the mail is intended for internal or external purposes (looking at the domain name (part after the @)) and if so delivers it locally to the mailbox stored on the server.

If an external mail is being send to your organisation (say @abc.com) from Gmail then the Google mail servers do a lookup for your domain (in this case being abc.com) look for a MX record for the domain (this is normally registered by your ISP that hosts your external ip addresses and is being send to that ip address. The ip address normally is an external ip address that belongs to your company after which your router sends it to your mail server internally.

This is just a brief description of how it works though..
MAS (MVE)EE Solution Guide - Technical Dept HeadCommented:
Exchange 2010 has a send connector which is hidden so when a user send an email internally this hidden send connector will be in play to deliver the email to the mailbox and store in database which mailbox belongs to.

When a gmail user send email to your exchange it will search for the mx record(mail exchange record) of the destination domain(with help of DNS). e.g. abc.com. mx record of abc.com is "mail.abc.com".  Then connect to exchange2010 server using public IP (Again with the help of DNS mail.abc.com will get resolved to IP).
You can check the mx record of a domain using sites like  www.mxtoolbox.com,

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