Update DNS root hints on server 2008R2

Hi all, I need to update the root hints in my server 2008 servers. I have an web address of : http://www.internic.net/zones/named.root
Which has the latest list but how do I copy them (other than manual) to the servers - any ideas?

Many thanks

Jason
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Jason ThomasAsked:
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Svet PaperovIT ManagerCommented:
Root hints can be changed on a DNS server only.

They have no meaning on a single host because it always uses the network card's DNS servers for name resolutions.

On a Windows Server DNS server, you have to go in its Properties and you will see a tab named Root Hints. You can update them there.
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zalazarCommented:
http://www.internic.net/zones/named.root   or   http://www.internic.net/domain/named.root  is indeed the correct location.

The Windows DNS server root hints file is located at the following location:
C:\Windows\System32\dns\cache.dns
You can update this file with the information found in "named.root" from Internic.

Procedure
Go to "services.msc" and stop service "DNS Server"

Create a backup of your current cache.dns file
Start a cmd.exe with administrative permissions (Run as Administrator)
copy /v C:\Windows\System32\dns\CACHE.DNS CACHE.DNS.org

Modify the current "C:\Windows\System32\dns\cache.dns" file and update it with the info from Internic.
or download the attached "cache.dns.txt" file, rename it to "cache.dns"
and copy it to directory "C:\Windows\System32\dns"

Go to "services.msc" and start service "DNS Server"
cache.dns.txt
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Jason ThomasAuthor Commented:
That's looks brilliant thank you. I can tr it on Monday but have one question. From the web site that I. Entiom a I've I couldn't see the file to download, can you just clarify the URL to show me the file please?

Many thanks
Jason
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zalazarCommented:
The file does unfortunately not come from an URL on the Internet as requested.
I actually created the file myself by looking up the latest IP-address from: http://www.internic.net/zones/named.root
and then manually adding the IP-addresses via the DNS MMC.

The files in http://www.internic.net/zones/ are only suitable for e.g. a BIND DNS server and I don't know a trusted location on the Internet where they provide such a file in Microsoft DNS format.
If such a solution is preferred then you might have a look at BIND DNS which can also run on Windows. Only the setup and management of BIND DNS compared to Microsoft DNS is totally different. http://www.isc.org/downloads/
Another option might be "Simple DNS Plus" (I have no experience with it) but this software is not freeware.
http://www.simpledns.com/
http://www.simpledns.com/help/v52/index.html?df_root.htm
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Svet PaperovIT ManagerCommented:
As I sad in my post, if you are managing a Windows DNS server, just open the DNS administrative tool and update the Root Hints there. If you are not managing DNS server, just forget about them.

Be very careful what where you get the numbers from. If you enter wrong addresses you could expose yourself to a man-in-the-middle attack.
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Jason ThomasAuthor Commented:
Hi and thanks to both of you. I have noted a couple of addresses within root hints on server 2008 have changed when comparing ing to the latest available internic so I was looking for an automated way if updating them, I wasn't sure I could edit the current IP address for a root domain and just starting changing the IP address manually without it causing a problem because I note that from with dns mmc all you have is the domain name and IP address but from internic for each address there is additional information for each domain entry, if you go to the URL in my first post you will see what I mean- they show additional information which I can't see in dns mmc an so don't know if u simy start changing te IP address's it wouldn't cause a problem. I appreciate all the help but I'm still not sure ( please forgive me) on the actual step by step method of changing the root hints that ship with server 2008r2
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zalazarCommented:
Unfortunately with Microsoft DNS I can't see an easy option to update the root hints automatically.

With Internic there is indeed additional information but if you do it via the DNS MMC, the interface will automatically add all the necessary info.
If you take the first entry of Microsoft's "cache.dns" (which was created by using the DNS MMC).
.                        3600000  IN  NS    A.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
A.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.      3600000      A     198.41.0.4

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and compare it to "named.root" from Internic
.                        3600000  IN  NS    A.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
A.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.      3600000      A     198.41.0.4
A.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.      3600000      AAAA  2001:503:BA3E::2:30

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Then the only difference is that Internic adds (in the last row) also the IPv6 IP-address of the root server. In this case 2001:503:BA3E::2:30
As the DNS server is an IPv4 DNS server this information is not applicable.
All other information is the same.
.          Root node
3600000      Time to live (this field is for historical reasons and not used by the DNS server)
IN          Stands for Internet (DNS class field)
NS          Name server record (Resource record)
A          IPv4 host record (Resource record)
AAAA   IPv6 host record (Resource record)
198.41.0.4      IPv4-address
2001:503:BA3E::2:30      IPv6-address

Open in new window

I can confirm that it's possible to edit the IP-addresses manually via the DNS MMC.
My recommended way of doing this is by opening the named.root with a text editor and then copy (control-c) the IP-address in the text editor and paste (control-v) the IP-address within the DNS MMC while verifying you select the correct root-server name. If you would verify each entry twice than everything should be ok.
At the end of the change you might restart the DNS Server service to be sure everything is loaded correctly.
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Jason ThomasAuthor Commented:
Thank you.
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