software protocols beginner question

I am pretty new to application development/protocols, but what are some of the most common protocols used when sending data to/from an application/database server. i.e. if I login to a system (for arguments sake a payroll system), and enter some details, read some data etc, what are the more common protocols apps use for passing this data from its db/app infrastructure to my client front end, be that a browser for web based apps or thick client software for other types of app?  Are there some common protocols dependant on the type of application used? Excuse my ignorance.
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pma111Asked:
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Haris DulicCommented:
Basically, you decide after reviewing the user and application requirements which is more appropriate and more applicable. As far as I know there is no rule which application should be and which should not be client-server or web  based...

There are pros and cons of both approach and based on that you select the design...
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dbruntonCommented:
ODBC http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Database_Connectivity used for apps connecting to databases either local or on servers.  Not for internet use.  Fairly standardised.

For internet use you'd be looking at HTML passing data from client to server.  At the server there are a number of ways of passing the HTML data to the database.  There's no standard type of protocol for that I'm aware of.  A number of computer languages are available to do the requests such as Python, CGI, PHP etc.
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