Easy understanding of items for secure communication

I'm not clear about following items about secure communication and their relation, e.g.Certificate servers , public keys. private key, Public key infrastructure. encryption algorithms... Could anyone explain clear? Thanks
litmicAsked:
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QlemoBatchelor, Developer and EE Topic AdvisorCommented:
That's a big field of knowledge, and difficult to summarize in a few sentences, but I will try for the context I guess you are asking this in.

Certificates are used to authenticate (it is really the address I want to talk to), to confirm the address as trustworthy (certain prerequisits fulfilled to make sure it is no fake address, malicious, ...) and to provide a public key for encryption.
The public key is something everyone can use to send encrypted data to the address. It can only be decrypted by the keyholder (or whoever has the private key). The private key is not derivable from data by any means (ideally - in fact depends on encryption algorithm and key strength, and collected sample data).
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