This originated with the user saying he was unable to get mail on his phone using ActiveSync. I tried adding his account to my phone and the account added, but no mail items pulled down. I tried this on several other phones with similar results. On a hunch, I logged in as the user on one of our Windows 7 domain workstations and opened his mailbox using Outlook 2010. Except for the user's folder structure under Inbox, nothing came down automatically. Even hitting Send/Receive all folders produced nothing. But when I hit Update Folder under Send/Receive, the items pertaining to the folder pulled down just fine.
I can send from the account, but I only receive items when I click Update Folder. I don't see anything out of the ordinary in the Exchange console pertaining to the user mailbox.