are all programming languages the same fundamentally?

I am making my own progress in Python etc but I was wanting to know perhaps from people who are experienced in languages ...are they generally all the same on a fundamental level?  do they differ a lot or do they have the same core functions which end up doing the same/similar things only in different or better or less better ways? I know every language has its specific strength but do they still all come from the same workings essentially.

Thanks and try and keep the answer simple please lol.
Alan RodgersAsked:
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käµfm³d 👽Connect With a Mentor Commented:
You ca n say that all languages use sames fundamentals like variables...
Is that strictly true, though? Assembly is a programming language, but from what I recall it doesn't have variables...unless you count a register as a variable (which I'm sure is arguable).

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There are fundamentals of programming that if learnt, should make you able to jump between languages without much obstruction--at least, between languages of the same category. By category I mean:

Functional
Procedural
Object Oriented
Declarative

Those are the types that were in my textbook when I was in school. There may be more categories now. Esoteric languages like Brainfuck might not follow any of the rules that a programmer today might consider normal, but it's still a programming language.

Programming languages are designed with a purpose in mind. Which language you choose to learn will be dictated by what your goal is, and possibly how the language achieves that goal.
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Benjamin MOREAUProject ManagerCommented:
It's a difficult question...

It depend of the fundamentals level... You ca n say that all languages use sames fundamentals like variables, syntax, data & control structure...
But each language have is own syntax.

Some languages are object, other not....

This (big) doc will give you some information about "fundamentals" : https://www.itu.dk/courses/BPRD/E2009/fundamental-1967.pdf
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FarWestCommented:
@Benjamin your attached document is an excellent example about the Gap between education and Industry :)

but I think what Alan assumed in his question :

are they generally all the same on a fundamental level?  do they differ a lot or do they have the same core functions which end up doing the same/similar things only in different or better or less better ways? I know every language has its specific strength but do they still all come from the same workings essentially
I for languages commonly used to do develop application either windows or web or mobile the assumption is correct
and you even find deep similarities among many languages like all .net languages and java, be note that other than simple logic or calculation most languages depends on libraries to execute and call complicated tasks which are most of the time similar in  usage and behavior, but there is also languages that purpose specific (this was very common before and most of them are becoming depreciated or not commonly used  like Fortran),

BTW, I think this type of question can be considered as discussion thread not a question that has specific answer
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ozoCommented:
unless you count a register as a variable
That can be one way of looking at it.
Another may be to count memory locations as variables.

In one fundamental sense, any Turing complete language can implement an emulator for any other Turing complete language.  There may be practical consequences of running an emulation, which can affect time or space requirements of a program.

Other practical differences between languages can include maintainability or portability or access to low level machine or operating system functions or a community of other programmers.
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Alan RodgersAuthor Commented:
Sorry I took so long. Thanks for the info.
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