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Determine previous month

Posted on 2015-02-02
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Last Modified: 2015-02-10
I am trying to determine the previous month.  For example if it is Feb. 1, I would need files with a month of 01 (which is within the file name).  I can get the current month , however, when I try to subtract 1 it gives me 1 instead of 01.  Is there a better way to do this?


year=$(date +"%y")
month=$(date +"%m")
let prevmonth=10#$month-1
echo $prevmonth
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Question by:bje
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by:woolmilkporc
woolmilkporc earned 214 total points
ID: 40584806
If you're on Linux (means: if you have GNU date) try this:

prevmonth=$(date -d "$(date +%Y-%m-15) -1 month" "+%m")
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by:jmcg
jmcg earned 144 total points
ID: 40584821
Have you thought about what you want to happen if the current date is in January? In that case, the year needs to be adjusted as well.

Can I assume you're using the GNU date command? Or one that follows a similar syntax?

year=$(date --date="1 month ago" +"%y")
prevmonth=$(date --date="1 month ago" +"%m")

echo $prevmonth $year
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by:woolmilkporc
ID: 40585135
@jmcg: Your solution will not work on March, 29 (except leap years), March, 30 and 31, May, 31, July, 31, October, 31 and December, 31.
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jmcg earned 144 total points
ID: 40585362
You are correct, woolmilkporc.

I wondered about that "15" in your answer (we must have been writing answers at the same time and yours posted first). I went and did some more digging and found:

http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/manual/html_chapter/tar_7.html

where it says:

The fuzz in units can cause problems with relative items. For example, `2003-07-31 -1 month' might evaluate to 2003-07-01, because 2003-06-31 is an invalid date. To determine the previous month more reliably, you can ask for the month before the 15th of the current month. For example:
$ date -R
Thu, 31 Jul 2003 13:02:39 -0700
$ date --date='-1 month' +'Last month was %B?'
Last month was July?
$ date --date="$(date +%Y-%m-15) -1 month" +'Last month was %B!'
Last month was June!

Open in new window


Also, take care when manipulating dates around clock changes such as daylight saving leaps. In a few cases these have added or subtracted as much as 24 hours from the clock, so it is often wise to adopt universal time by setting the TZ environment variable to `UTC0' before embarking on calendrical calculations.

So the "15" is somewhat arbitrary and could just as well be any number from "1" to "28", right?

Excel has an EOMONTH function which is frequently referred to for finding previous month in a spreadsheet context.

The Perl module Date::Manip, which I've used in the past, manages to avoid this problem in most cases by truncating the day-of-the-month to the last day of the month when calculating deltas that include a non-zero month.

So what looks like a simple question can really get quite deep (though not nearly as deep as deciding the date of Easter)!
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by:woolmilkporc
ID: 40585753
>> So the "15" is somewhat arbitrary and could just as well be any number from "1" to "28", right? <<

Right!
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by:woolmilkporc
woolmilkporc earned 214 total points
ID: 40585990
If you don't have GNU date a simple awk can do:

prevmonth=`awk -v M=$(date +%m) 'BEGIN {PM=M-1; if(PM==0) PM=12; printf "%02s\n",PM}'`

or better (if your shell supports it):

prevmonth=$(awk -v M=$(date +%m) 'BEGIN {PM=M-1; if(PM==0) PM=12; printf "%02s\n",PM}')
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by:ozo
ozo earned 142 total points
ID: 40586031
prevmonth=$(printf %02d $((($(date +%m)+10)%12+1)))
Do you also need the year corresponding to the prevmonth
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Author Comment

by:bje
ID: 40586475
Yes, would also need the year.
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by:ozo
ozo earned 142 total points
ID: 40586577
YM=`date +%Y%m`
prevmonth=$(printf %02d $(((#10${YM:4}+10)%12+1)))
prevmonthyear=$(( ${YM:0:4}-10#$prevmonth/12 ))
echo $prevmonthyear-$prevmonth
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LVL 68

Assisted Solution

by:woolmilkporc
woolmilkporc earned 214 total points
ID: 40586753
GNU date:

prevmonth_year=$(date -d "$(date +%Y-%m-15) -1 month" "+%m_%Y")

2-digit year:

prevmonth_year=$(date -d "$(date +%Y-%m-15) -1 month" "+%m_%y")

awk:

prevmonth_year=$(awk -v M=$(date +%m) -v Y=$(date +%Y) 'BEGIN {PM=M-1; if(PM==0) {PM=12; Y--}; printf "%02s_%4s\n",PM, Y}')

2-digit year:

prevmonth_year=$(awk -v M=$(date +%m) -v Y=$(date +%y) 'BEGIN {PM=M-1; if(PM==0) {PM=12; Y=(Y+99)%100}; printf "%02s_%02s\n",PM, Y}')
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