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iphoto and icloud - should all the pics that are in iphoto be in icloud?  What to do if not?

I'm much stronger with windows OS.

As part of another question
I am trying to get data off a mac.  I copied everything off under the 'all my data' favorite in finder - about 500 items.... but then poking around, I come upon iPhoto.  8000 pics!  
a) why isn't that in all my data?
b) noticed that he user's ipad doesn't show all the 8000 pics (on the ipad, there's no files from 2011 and in iPhoto there's a bunch from that year.  Likely other things missing but that's a first quick discovery).  She is paying for icloud, but even still, there's limits to what can fit on icloud, right?  How do you know what's in iPhoto and not in icloud?  and then what?  copy to hard drive to back up?  Then put in windows PC?

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iPhoto stores photos in an image library. In other words, they are all in a single file called "iPhoto Library".

To move the photos to windows, open iPhoto, then click on "Photos" under Library in the left hand sidebar window.

Then type Command-A (select all).

Then pull down the File menu to Export. In the window that opens, choose the File Export tab. Make sure you choose "original" for file type. You also have an option to sort the pictures in subfolders by Event name.

Make sure you choose "original" for file type.
iPhoto's image library is a database.  There are free file transfer utilities if you prefer to just manually drag the files out from your iPhone instead of importing them to iPhoto.  You used to be able to do that directly with Windows, until they started encrypting the iphone.

On a Mac, you will normally find the iPhoto Library in your Home Folder's Photos folder.  http://osxdaily.com/2011/08/30/where-iphoto-pictures-are-located/  If you copy it intact, you can load the iPhoto Library from any Mac's iPhoto with the Switch to Library function and load your Library from other locations.