Cannot send emails through Exchange 2013 with Outlook (was working previously)

We have an Exchange 2013 install running on a VM.  It has been running successfully for 5 months.  Today users quit receiving emails, however sent emails we're going through.  A quick check revealed that the VM's hard drive was low on space so presumably Exchange suspended some operations.

I shut down the VM, increased the HD drive, and restarted.  Now, emails can be received from the internet, but emails sent with Outlook, either to other local users or the internet, are never received.  However, if I send an email from an application which utilizes an Anonymous SMTP connector, those emails are received both locally and if I send to an internet email address.

When I send by Outlook, the message does not sit in the Outbox.

I will add that in the process of increasing the HD size, I also installed some Windows updates that were pending (bad idea maybe).  I have restarted the server several times since then.

The most frustrating thing is I cannot determine which logs to look at to help track down this failure.  I have viewed logs showing incomming emails but not outgoing.

Any suggestions on how to troubleshoot this issue would be greatly appreciated!

Thank you
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Will SzymkowskiSenior Solution ArchitectCommented:
When you send a test email to check if it actually left your environment use Get-messageTrackingLog cmdlet and see where the messages goes. Does it get stuck in the queue? Have you checked the event viewer on this server or other exchange servers to see if anything pops out? I would start there.


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AbsentMindedProfAuthor Commented:
When I took another look a the Server Manager I noticed an indicator showing that there was 1 service that failed to start.  It turns out it was an Exchange Service:

"Microsoft Exchange Mailbox Transport Submission"

I selected "Start" and the service started up ok.  Within minutes every email that had been sent, but never received, was received.

I kick myself for spending so much time trying to track down the problem w/o looking at the Server Manager close enough.  But at the same time, I have to wonder, why did that service not start on its own?  It is properly set to Start on bootup and restart on failure.
AbsentMindedProfAuthor Commented:
I've requested that this question be closed as follows:

Accepted answer: 0 points for AbsentMindedProf's comment #a40799498

for the following reason:

I figured it out on my own.  Sometimes asking others forces one to view the problem differently and leads to answering one's own question.
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Will SzymkowskiSenior Solution ArchitectCommented:
Mail Submission is a critical service. If it is not running then like you have experienced you will not receive email.

Glad it is resolved.

AbsentMindedProfAuthor Commented:
Will, I did try using the Get-MessageTracking cmdlet and it did not show any of the messages that failed to be received.  I also could not see any of the messages in any queues.
AbsentMindedProfAuthor Commented:
Thanks for providing such quick responses Will.  

Out of curiosity, do you know if there would be a particular Exchange log where I could have "seen" where the message transport was failing due to the service not running?
Will SzymkowskiSenior Solution ArchitectCommented:
Yes in the application logs as I stated in my original comment. This would have identified the failed service along with other error events due to the submission service not being started.

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