Transaction SQL to add index to SQL Server 2012 Table - and options

I have added a column Regions to table Members. This field will be used in searches through members to find Members available for the visitors region. Please advise the TA-SQL to do this - I don't understand all the options - clustered etc?  Region will be used in a lot of intensive searches with other columns. Thanks
Ian WhiteOwner and FounderAsked:
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Deepak ChauhanSQL Server DBACommented:
However you can create only one clustered index on a table. Please check first the primary key as primary key create a cluster index automatically.  If clustered index already exists , you can create non clustered index on the table and you can include 16 columns according to need.

You can create clustered Index using this sample T-sql using this code. or using GUI in SSMS.

---Clustered Index.
CREATE CLUSTERED INDEX <index Name>
    ON dbo.<tableName>  (ColumnName);
GO

--Non clustered index
CREATE NONCLUSTERED INDEX <index Name>
    ON dbo.<tableName>  (ColumnName);
GO

Here is the more example of create index Tsql with examples
https://technet.microsoft.com/library/ms188783.aspx

And this is the definition
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/ms190457.aspx
Mike EghtebasDatabase and Application DeveloperCommented:
If this is an existing table, most likely it already has a cluster index.

If the you will supplying filter criteria to search for Regions fields then, as suggested, run:

CREATE NONCLUSTERED INDEX indexRegions ON dbo.Members  (Regions );

If you are not going yo search by Regions, then there is no need to create this index.

Mike

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Ian WhiteOwner and FounderAuthor Commented:
Ok Thanks very much. So what is the advantage of adding multiple columns in one index. Is this like a super index with all the common visitor/user  search criteria used concatenated together?
Mike EghtebasDatabase and Application DeveloperCommented:
Table_1 (a table with no cluster index or any kind of index is called heap there is no order at all except on RID). RID column (row identifier) is a hidden column automatically generated.
RID   SSN     FName     LastName      City        State      Region
1     -----1    Mike        Smith       Seattle    OR         NW
2     -----6    Joe         Peterson    LA         CA          W
3     -----4    Sheila      Brown       Dallas     TX         SW
4     -----8    Scott       White       Ohio       IL         MW   
5     -----9    Mike        Davisin     Ohio       IL         MW

Open in new window

 
When user assign or runs T-SQL to create PK on SSN column, then an index is created in B-Tree (binary tree) structure like below, not visible to users, sorted by SSN. This B-Tree + heap table is known as clustered index.
RID   SSN     
1     -----1    
3     -----4    
2     -----6    
4     -----8    
5     -----9    

Open in new window

 

none cluster on Region for example will be like:
RID  Region
4    MW
9    MW   
1    NW
3    SW
2    W

Open in new window



A none cluster on two column example will be like FName     LastName  like:
RID   FName       LastName
2     Joe         Peterson
9     Mike        Davison
1     Mike        Smith
4     Scott       White
3     Sheila      Brown   

Open in new window


I will invite another expert to comment on my post to make sure I have it all correctly stated.

Mike

Note to Ian White: This post has been modified couple of time. Please review to make sure you have read the latest revision.
Mike EghtebasDatabase and Application DeveloperCommented:
Important:
"A primary key (in a referenced table) creates a unique index on PK. But foreign keys (in the referencing tables) are not indexed. Such indexes could improve the performance of joins based on those relationships. Because SQL Server doesn’t create such indexes automatically, it’s your responsibility to identify the cases where they can be useful and create them. So when working on index tuning, one interesting area to examine is foreign key columns, and evaluating the benefits of creating indexes on those."
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