split-DNS

Hello MS team,



I have some confusion about the purpose and definition of a Windows split- DNS domain.



What exactly is a windows split-DNS? what is the reason of creating a split-DNS?



If the internal company's windows domain is called company.com, and the external domain is called in the same domain, can we consider this as split-DNS?



What are the gotchas of using split-dns?



Pros and Cons?
Jerry SeinfieldAsked:
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Cliff GaliherCommented:
Answers in-line:

Hello MS team,

Just to clarify, Experts Exchange primarily a community of fellow "experts" sharing knowledge.  There is no "MS Team" here and it isn't an official MS support channel.  Set your expectations accordingly. Like any community, there is good advice, bad advice, and a few trolls as well.

 I have some confusion about the purpose and definition of a Windows split- DNS domain.
 What exactly is a windows split-DNS? what is the reason of creating a split-DNS?

There is no such things as "Windows split-DNS."  Split DNS is *not* windows specific. It a term commonly used to describe having multiple DNS servers (not all have to be windows) that do not all have the same IP addresses listed in their zones. Hence the authoritative answer for the zone is "split" across different DNS servers.

If the internal company's windows domain is called company.com, and the external domain is called in the same domain, can we consider this as split-DNS?

Not necessarily.  If all of your machines have a public address and all DNS servers have the same zone information then there is nothing split about that setup.  However if you use NAT and want internal servers to give internal-only addresses, while external DNS servers don't list internal machines at all, and give different addresses for externally reachable resources, *that* is split-DNS.  The above is just an example. There are plenty of other cases, some common, some very unique and esoteric, where you might use split-DNS to solve the issues related to IPv4 exhaustion.

 What are the gotchas of using split-dns?
Only a few.  All are centered around poor change-management practices and documentation. There aren't any technical "gotchas."

 Pros and Cons?
Pros are that it can be a solution for issues where IPv4 exhaustion doesn't allow for other solutions.  NAT itself exists for that reason and is the primary topology where you see split-DNS used.

Cons are that you have to have change management procedures that are followed or you can really break access to resources.  You have to document those policies and those changes. And you have to have skilled staff that understands DNS and how this all works.  And finally, there is some administrative overhead as you are now managing multiple records per resource instead of just one per resource.

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