Explain PING results Codes

I looked online to find the explanation of the PING results, but could not fine any.
I looked on the link above also similar links but  it does not explain what each ping result means

for instance: Ping
If  get Time Out, Destination Host unreachable, etc..etc..
What does each result means ... sometimes it means the host is down, sometimes, the network that the host is on is down but the host is probably up

there are many different results that we can get from Ping

Any link that explains each results what it means ?

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Paul SimmonsCommented:
The most authoritative resources would be the IANA:

Wikipedia is also a reputable reference:
Not sure what you are after.
Timeout in addition to what you posted, is also a configurable setting I.e. One can configure their firewall, systems to not respond to pings when they are not from known sources/desired sources.
Ping/trace route can be used to map a network. Identifying routers, etc.
Don JohnstonInstructorCommented:
I think that you're looking for what the destination unreachable result codes are.

They're pretty self-explanatory.

 0  Net Unreachable
	    1  Host Unreachable
            2  Protocol Unreachable
            3  Port Unreachable
            4  Fragmentation Needed and Don't Fragment was Set
            5  Source Route Failed
            6  Destination Network Unknown
            7  Destination Host Unknown
            8  Source Host Isolated
            9  Communication with Destination Network is
               Administratively Prohibited
           10  Communication with Destination Host is
               Administratively Prohibited
           11  Destination Network Unreachable for Type of Service
           12  Destination Host Unreachable for Type of Service
           13  Communication Administratively Prohibited      [RFC1812]
           14  Host Precedence Violation                      [RFC1812]
           15  Precedence cutoff in effect                    [RFC1812]

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How different vendors generate their text is up to them though.
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jskfanAuthor Commented:

I have seen that list, but what does each result mean

for instance the most common results of ping are:

Time Out, Destination Host unreachable

in which scenario we can get Time out and in which scenario we get Destination Host unreachable

this is just for 2 scenarios

The list that Don posted has many scenarios ... but there is no link on the internet that explains in which case you get each result listed above by Don
those codes will be seen commonly on your own network where you do not block ping/icmp packets generated internally.  Though even on ones own network one might restrict as mentioned above to minimize "discovery" internally through defining explicitly sources from which other devices will respond. i.e. simply being on the network you will not be able to discover the equipment.....

What are you after?
Don JohnstonInstructorCommented:
A "host unreachable" would be where the router which serves the network that the destination is on, can't get a response to an ARP request.  

There is no "timeout" code.
jskfanAuthor Commented:
There is no Time Out code, but when you ping you can get :
reply Time out OR Destination Host Unreachable, OR you get neither, just the ping fails.

That's what I was looking for, the different results of PING. If there is a link that explains them that would be great.
Think of it this way, you place a call to a friend.
The person disabled voicemail.
The attempts keeps ringing.
You either can wait or you decide the hang-up.
The reason is either the person forgot the phone, or the person does not want to answer.

ping is the same, it has built-in criteria on how long it will wait for a response, that is controlled with the -W option.

I am still not clear what is the reason behind your question.

What is the significance you are applying to the situation.
i.e. what is the difference to you whether the ping packet (icmp) hitting a router that is configured not to respond or one that is saturated with higher priority data handling acknowledged by your app as a response has not been received within the amount you specified to wait.
Don JohnstonInstructorCommented:
There is no Time Out code, but when you ping you can get :
reply Time out OR Destination Host Unreachable, OR you get neither, just the ping fails.
"time out" is not the result of receiving an ICMP message. It is what happens when you do not receive a response at all (within the timeout period).

"host unreachable" is what you receive from the router that serves the target's network if they can't find the host.

I haven't seen a document that details each code.  The codes are rather self-explanatory.  "Destination Network Unreachable" would be an intermediate router reporting back that he network that the destination host is on is unreachable.  "Destination Network Unreachable" is when the intermediate network is unreachable (as in the next hop router is down).

And so on.
jskfanAuthor Commented:

I know that if there is no reply from the host, it means you cannot reach it.
However through the reply message you can tell if the down stream router cannot reach the host, or the host itself is down, or the host does not exist at all.
It was true when the TCP/IP was designed. It is only true on ones own network and often requires you to change the settings.
Many routers are now require affirmative steps to enable the device to respond to ICMP/ping requests along with having ACLs allowing the same.
PING and traceroute can be used to map out the network.

When you ping someserver.somedomain.com You are dealing with multiple entities on the path.
Your own network.
Your Upstream Provider
Their upstream provider
The remote side's upstream provider
The remote side network
the path to the server.

Each entity has their own enforcement.

the pings are allowed to pass, but will not be responded to.

The point is that internally you can configure your network as you see fit and get the appropriate response as defined.

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jskfanAuthor Commented:
In my case I am talking about internal network.
sometimes I ping a hostname and there is no response , I believe in that case the hostname is not in DNS
sometimes I ping hostname and it will show the IP address but with time out in replies. Sometime I ping hostname, it show IP address but with Destination host unreachable.

I know the IP address will show up only if reverse lookup zone is configured and PTR exists in the Reverse Lookup zone.
jskfanAuthor Commented:
thank you
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