I have 2 x load balanced ADFS Servers and 2 x load balanced web proxy servers located in Azure ready to deploy Federated Services.
When I go to the URL - https://adfs.company.com/adfs/ls/IdpInitiatedSignon.aspx
everything works fine and there are no errors in event logs on any of the servers
When I federate the domain, it all works OK. When I login onto Office 365 with a user I get redirected to the correct login page however all Outlook clients in the on premise LAN hang on "Loading Profile"
On running the Single Sign On test on the Remote Connectivity Analyser it all passes all tests apart from the last section that advises
No SAML token was found in the response from the Security Token service
I then "unfederate" the domain and everything goes back to normal.
I did find this article that mentions something about firewall ports - https://community.office365.com/en-us/f/156/t/247867
With the ADFS servers in Azure I don't think that this is relevant though