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The remote computer had its RDP-port changed from 3389 to 443 to bypass firewall restrictions from the corporate network. This would case certain Windows features to misinterpret the traffic and interfere with the connection.
Anyway, the cause for my specific issue was “Windows Auto-Tuning” (first introduced in Windows Vista), it was breaking (“optimizing”) the remote desktop traffic.
To shut this feature off simply open a command-prompt with elevated privileges and type:>
netsh interface tcp set global autotuninglevel=disabled
There is no need to reboot your computer, it will turn the feature off immediately.
To re-enable the feature write:> netsh interface tcp set global autotuninglevel=normal
You run an application that connects remotely by using a TCP connection on a computer that's running Windows 8, Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2012, or Windows Server 2012 R2. If the TCP connection uses ephemeral (short-lived) loopback addresses, the connection may be dropped suddenly after 40 to 50 seconds. However, the TCP connection is still "live" from the client side. In this situation, the application does not maintain the remote connection.
If you find yourself having name resolution problems, there are a couple of different things that you can try. One option is to try using the remote system's fully qualified domain name as opposed to its NetBIOS name. This won't always help you to establish a connection, but in certain situations it will help.
Another option is to specify the remote machine’s IP address rather than its name. Generally speaking, using an IP address tends to be much less problematic than using a host name when connecting. Even IP addresses can be problematic, though.
The biggest factor that tends to make connecting with IP addresses problematic is the use of dynamic IP addresses. If you are using Remote Desktop to connect to a server, this probably won't be an issue, because most servers use static IP addresses. Workstations, on the other hand, almost always use dynamic IP addresses. Therefore, the IP address that your workstation is using today will probably be assigned to a different workstation tomorrow. If the machine that you are connecting to does use dynamic IP addresses, then you will practically have no choice but to specify a host name when connecting rather than specifying the machine's IP address.
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