PHP Failure Inside An MS Office Generated Webpage

Greetings Experts,

I have a problem with getting php to work inside a document that was auto-generated by MS Office (Outlook to be precise).  I had some code I wanted to put into the poppersinversion.org newsletter.  The newsletter is created in stages, one of which is normally to save an Outlook message to an html file.  This time, I decided to put some code in the page.  My Linux web host supports php, and I had previously had the code written and tested, but when put in the newsletter page it did not work.  In fact NO php code works inside the Office generated page.   You can see for yourself at http://www.poppersinversion.org/pos/2015/pos-2015-q3.php .  Look at the page source and search for the variable $report.  You can literally see the php code!  I suspect this has something to do with all the schemas that were loaded, but then which one and is it necessary?  Or is it something else?

Thanks,
NCM
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Dave BaldwinFixer of ProblemsCommented:
Nope.  I downloaded your page and ran it locally and it works fine.  For some reason, the PHP code is not being run in that page on your server.  That's what you have to look for.  See if there is an '.htaccess' file that is blocking it in that directory.
1
Ray PaseurCommented:
Here is what I see when I install the script, visit the link and view the source.  
http://iconoun.com/demo/temp_ncm.php

Other than being mostly useless because of Microsoft markup, the document is "php-correct."  So I agree with Dave's assessment -- your server did not parse this page through PHP.  

If you have a hosting service, contact the administrators and ask them to find and fix the issue.

On your side of things, you might want to find a different publishing strategy.  This document markup is pretty much full of errors, as you can see from a quick check of the validator.
http://validator.w3.org/nu/?doc=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.poppersinversion.org%2Fpos%2F2015%2Fpos-2015-q3.php
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xmlns:w="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:word"
xmlns:m="http://schemas.microsoft.com/office/2004/12/omml"
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40">

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<meta name=ProgId content=Word.Document>
<meta name=Generator content="Microsoft Word 14">
<meta name=Originator content="Microsoft Word 14">
<link rel=File-List href="pos-2015-q3_files/filelist.xml">
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	margin:0in;
	margin-bottom:.0001pt;
	line-height:125%;
	mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
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	mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;
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	letter-spacing:-.4pt;
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h4
	{mso-style-priority:9;
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	mso-style-qformat:yes;
	mso-style-link:"Heading 4 Char";
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	margin-bottom:.0001pt;
	line-height:125%;
	mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
	mso-outline-level:4;
	font-size:12.0pt;
	font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
	mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;
	color:gray;
	font-weight:bold;}
h5
	{mso-style-priority:9;
	mso-style-unhide:no;
	mso-style-qformat:yes;
	mso-style-link:"Heading 5 Char";
	margin:0in;
	margin-bottom:.0001pt;
	mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
	mso-outline-level:5;
	font-size:10.0pt;
	font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
	mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;
	font-weight:bold;}
h6
	{mso-style-priority:9;
	mso-style-unhide:no;
	mso-style-qformat:yes;
	mso-style-link:"Heading 6 Char";
	margin:0in;
	margin-bottom:.0001pt;
	mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
	mso-outline-level:6;
	font-size:7.5pt;
	font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
	mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;
	font-weight:bold;}
a:link, span.MsoHyperlink
	{mso-style-noshow:yes;
	mso-style-priority:99;
	color:blue;
	text-decoration:underline;
	text-underline:single;}
a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed
	{mso-style-noshow:yes;
	mso-style-priority:99;
	color:purple;
	text-decoration:underline;
	text-underline:single;}
p
	{mso-style-noshow:yes;
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	mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
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p.MsoAcetate, li.MsoAcetate, div.MsoAcetate
	{mso-style-noshow:yes;
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	mso-style-link:"Balloon Text Char";
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	mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
	font-size:8.0pt;
	font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif";
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span.Heading1Char
	{mso-style-name:"Heading 1 Char";
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span.Heading2Char
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	color:#4F81BD;
	font-weight:bold;}
span.Heading3Char
	{mso-style-name:"Heading 3 Char";
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	mso-style-priority:9;
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	font-family:"Cambria","serif";
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	mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
	mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria;
	mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
	color:#4F81BD;
	font-weight:bold;}
span.Heading4Char
	{mso-style-name:"Heading 4 Char";
	mso-style-noshow:yes;
	mso-style-priority:9;
	mso-style-unhide:no;
	mso-style-locked:yes;
	mso-style-link:"Heading 4";
	mso-ansi-font-size:12.0pt;
	mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;
	font-family:"Cambria","serif";
	mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria;
	mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
	mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria;
	mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
	color:#4F81BD;
	font-weight:bold;
	font-style:italic;}
span.Heading5Char
	{mso-style-name:"Heading 5 Char";
	mso-style-noshow:yes;
	mso-style-priority:9;
	mso-style-unhide:no;
	mso-style-locked:yes;
	mso-style-link:"Heading 5";
	mso-ansi-font-size:12.0pt;
	mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;
	font-family:"Cambria","serif";
	mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria;
	mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
	mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria;
	mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
	color:#243F60;}
span.Heading6Char
	{mso-style-name:"Heading 6 Char";
	mso-style-noshow:yes;
	mso-style-priority:9;
	mso-style-unhide:no;
	mso-style-locked:yes;
	mso-style-link:"Heading 6";
	mso-ansi-font-size:12.0pt;
	mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;
	font-family:"Cambria","serif";
	mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria;
	mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
	mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria;
	mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";
	color:#243F60;
	font-style:italic;}
span.BalloonTextChar
	{mso-style-name:"Balloon Text Char";
	mso-style-noshow:yes;
	mso-style-priority:99;
	mso-style-unhide:no;
	mso-style-locked:yes;
	mso-style-link:"Balloon Text";
	mso-ansi-font-size:8.0pt;
	mso-bidi-font-size:8.0pt;
	font-family:"Tahoma","sans-serif";
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	mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma;}
p.readmsgbody, li.readmsgbody, div.readmsgbody
	{mso-style-name:readmsgbody;
	mso-style-noshow:yes;
	mso-style-priority:99;
	mso-style-unhide:no;
	margin-top:12.0pt;
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	margin-bottom:12.0pt;
	margin-left:0in;
	mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
	font-size:12.0pt;
	font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
	mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;}
p.externalclass, li.externalclass, div.externalclass
	{mso-style-name:externalclass;
	mso-style-noshow:yes;
	mso-style-priority:99;
	mso-style-unhide:no;
	margin-top:12.0pt;
	margin-right:0in;
	margin-bottom:12.0pt;
	margin-left:0in;
	mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
	font-size:12.0pt;
	font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
	mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;}
p.mcnimage, li.mcnimage, div.mcnimage
	{mso-style-name:mcnimage;
	mso-style-noshow:yes;
	mso-style-priority:99;
	mso-style-unhide:no;
	margin-top:12.0pt;
	margin-right:0in;
	margin-bottom:12.0pt;
	margin-left:0in;
	mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
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	font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";
	mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;}
p.mcntextcontent, li.mcntextcontent, div.mcntextcontent
	{mso-style-name:mcntextcontent;
	mso-style-noshow:yes;
	mso-style-priority:99;
	mso-style-unhide:no;
	margin-top:12.0pt;
	margin-right:0in;
	margin-bottom:12.0pt;
	margin-left:0in;
	mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
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	mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri;}
p.mcntextcontent1, li.mcntextcontent1, div.mcntextcontent1
	{mso-style-name:mcntextcontent1;
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	mso-style-priority:99;
	mso-style-unhide:no;
	margin-top:12.0pt;
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	margin-bottom:12.0pt;
	margin-left:0in;
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p.mcntextcontent2, li.mcntextcontent2, div.mcntextcontent2
	{mso-style-name:mcntextcontent2;
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p.mcntextcontent3, li.mcntextcontent3, div.mcntextcontent3
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p.mcntextcontent4, li.mcntextcontent4, div.mcntextcontent4
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span.org
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span.locality
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span.region
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span.postal-code
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@page WordSection1
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	mso-paper-source:0;}
div.WordSection1
	{page:WordSection1;}
-->
</style>
<!--[if gte mso 10]>
<style>
 /* Style Definitions */
 table.MsoNormalTable
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</style>
<![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml>
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</xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml>
 <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit">
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 </o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]-->
</head>

<body bgcolor="#F2F2F2" lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple style='tab-interval:
.5in'>

<h2>Text Before PHP code</h2>
<?php
	$report = "<p>This sentence is inside php brackets.</p>"; 
	echo $report;
?>
<h2>Text After PHP code</h2>

<div class=WordSection1>
<div align=center>

<table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%"
 style='width:100.0%;background:#F2F2F2;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:
 1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
  <td width="100%" valign=top style='width:100.0%;padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'>
  <div align=center>
  <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0 width="100%"
   style='width:100.0%;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;
   mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'>
   <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes'>
    <td valign=top style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'>
    <div align=center>
    <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
     width="100%" style='width:100.0%;background:white;border-collapse:collapse;
     mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'>
     <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
      <td valign=top style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'>
      <div align=center>
      <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
       width=600 style='width:6.25in;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:
       1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'>
       <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
        <td valign=top style='padding:6.75pt 0in 0in 0in'>
        <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
         width="100%" style='width:100.0%;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:
         1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'>
         <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:
          yes'>
          <td valign=top style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in'>
          <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
           align=left width=366 style='width:274.5pt;border-collapse:collapse;
           mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-table-lspace:2.25pt;mso-table-rspace:2.25pt;
           mso-table-anchor-vertical:paragraph;mso-table-anchor-horizontal:
           column;mso-table-left:left;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in'>
           <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:
            yes'>
            <td valign=top style='padding:6.75pt 0in 6.75pt 13.5pt'>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:125%'><span style='font-size:
            18.0pt;line-height:125%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'>Popper's
            Other Shoe</span><span style='font-size:8.5pt;line-height:125%;
            font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
            color:#606060'> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
            </td>
           </tr>
          </table>
          <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
           align=right width=197 style='width:147.75pt;border-collapse:collapse;
           mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-table-lspace:2.25pt;mso-table-rspace:2.25pt;
           mso-table-anchor-vertical:paragraph;mso-table-anchor-horizontal:
           column;mso-table-left:right;mso-table-top:middle;mso-padding-alt:
           0in 0in 0in 0in'>
           <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:
            yes'>
            <td valign=top style='padding:6.75pt 13.5pt 6.75pt 0in'>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:125%'><span style='font-size:
            8.5pt;line-height:125%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
            </td>
           </tr>
          </table>
          </td>
         </tr>
        </table>
        </td>
       </tr>
      </table>
      </div>
      </td>
     </tr>
    </table>
    </div>
    </td>
   </tr>
   <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1'>
    <td valign=top style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;
    -webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%'>
    <div align=center>
    <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
     width="100%" style='width:100.0%;background:white;border-collapse:collapse;
     mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;
     -webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%' id=templateHeader>
     <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
      <td valign=top style='padding:0in 0in 0in 0in;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;
      -webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%'>
      <div align=center>
      <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
       width=600 style='width:6.25in;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:
       1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;
       -webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%'>
       <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
        <td valign=top style='padding:7.5pt 0in 7.5pt 0in;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;
        -webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%'>
        <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
         width="100%" style='width:100.0%;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:
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         -webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%'>
         <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:
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          <td valign=top style='padding:6.75pt 6.75pt 6.75pt 6.75pt;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;
          -webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%'>
          <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
           align=left width="100%" style='width:100.0%;border-collapse:collapse;
           mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-table-lspace:2.25pt;mso-table-rspace:2.25pt;
           mso-table-anchor-vertical:paragraph;mso-table-anchor-horizontal:
           column;mso-table-left:left;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in;
           -ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%'>
           <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:
            yes'>
            <td valign=top style='padding:0in 6.75pt 0in 6.75pt;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;
            -webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%'>
            <p class=MsoNormal><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shapetype id="_x0000_t75"
             coordsize="21600,21600" o:spt="75" o:preferrelative="t" path="m@4@5l@4@11@9@11@9@5xe"
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             <v:stroke joinstyle="miter"/>
             <v:formulas>
              <v:f eqn="if lineDrawn pixelLineWidth 0"/>
              <v:f eqn="sum @0 1 0"/>
              <v:f eqn="sum 0 0 @1"/>
              <v:f eqn="prod @2 1 2"/>
              <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelWidth"/>
              <v:f eqn="prod @3 21600 pixelHeight"/>
              <v:f eqn="sum @0 0 1"/>
              <v:f eqn="prod @6 1 2"/>
              <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelWidth"/>
              <v:f eqn="sum @8 21600 0"/>
              <v:f eqn="prod @7 21600 pixelHeight"/>
              <v:f eqn="sum @10 21600 0"/>
             </v:formulas>
             <v:path o:extrusionok="f" gradientshapeok="t" o:connecttype="rect"/>
             <o:lock v:ext="edit" aspectratio="t"/>
            </v:shapetype><v:shape id="_x0000_s1026" type="#_x0000_t75" alt=""
             style='position:absolute;margin-left:0;margin-top:0;width:422.25pt;
             height:156.8pt;z-index:251658240;mso-wrap-distance-left:0;
             mso-wrap-distance-top:0;mso-wrap-distance-right:0;
             mso-wrap-distance-bottom:0;mso-position-horizontal:left;
             mso-position-horizontal-relative:text;
             mso-position-vertical-relative:line' o:allowoverlap="f">
             <v:imagedata src="https://gallery.mailchimp.com/df5b047d8550aaebd7820edc2/images/0348b691-fcd6-491d-989d-b69b50e0f435.jpg"/>
             <w:wrap type="square"/>
            </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=563 height=209
            src="https://gallery.mailchimp.com/df5b047d8550aaebd7820edc2/images/0348b691-fcd6-491d-989d-b69b50e0f435.jpg"
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            style='mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p>
            </td>
           </tr>
          </table>
          </td>
         </tr>
        </table>
        </td>
       </tr>
      </table>
      </div>
      </td>
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            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'>3rd
            Quarter, 2015 <o:p></o:p></span></p>
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        <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
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        <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
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            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:
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            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'>Greetings
            old friends and new subscribers --<br>
            <br>
            <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>The Hack That Wasn't<o:p></o:p></b></span></p>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:
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            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:
            11.5pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'>We were
            hacked a few months ago, so when these pesky ads started showing up
            again I feared the worst.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  
            </span>It turns out it was a problem that everyone using Sweet
            Captcha was having.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>In other
            words, it was Sweet Captcha that was hacked (<a
            href="https://wordpress.org/support/topic/sweetcapcha-hacked-and-causing-malicious-popups">https://wordpress.org/support/topic/sweetcapcha-hacked-and-causing-malicious-popups</a>)
            .<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>We have removed Sweet
            Captcha from Popper's Inversion (no more cigar smoking piggies :-(
            ), and have implemented a content-based method of keeping out
            spammers (Akismet).<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>For now,
            you won't have to respond to a captcha at all.<span
            style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>However, the more this runs, the
            more I think that it is not in the long run the best solution.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:
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            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'><br>
            <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>Book Reviews</b><br>
            <br>
            Although we often recommend books in this newsletter, we've not
            previously done so as thoroughly as Keith does this quarter with <i
            style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Tropic of Chaos</i> and <i
            style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Why the West Rules - For Now</i>.
            &nbsp;The first of these was recommended in our last issue, but for
            folks who need a little more convincing, here it is. &nbsp;For
            anyone who still scoffs at the idea of a coming large-scale dieback
            for our species, you'll be surprised to find out how many local
            level ‘warning’ diebacks we’ve already had.<br>
            <br>
            <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'>What Do You Mean We'll All
            Be Able To Agree ... On Everything?<br>
            </b><br>
            This quarter's &quot;Kernels of 'Truth?'&quot; departs from the
            usual email conversation between Keith and me, and instead attempts
            to explain what to me was Keith's most vexing assertion, that
            &quot;all conflicts between logically exclusive knowledge proposals
            are resolvable.&quot; &nbsp;In the process you'll find how Keith's
            Eight Assertions were distilled from the<span
            style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>larger list of &quot;Points&quot;
            in &quot;Truth?&quot;.<br>
            <br>
            Cheers,<br>
            poppersinversion webmaster<o:p></o:p></span></p>
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        <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
        display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
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            src="pos-2015-q3_files/image002.jpg" align=right hspace=12 v:shapes="Picture_x0020_1"><![endif]><b
            style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.5pt;
            mso-bidi-font-size:11.5pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'>Keith's
            Corner<br>
            </span></b><span style='font-size:11.5pt;line-height:150%;
            font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
            color:#606060'><br>
            The For this quarter's KC I'd like to offer a couple of book
            reviews. They are for recent books that I believe to be relevant to
            <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Leaving Truth</i>'s main
            thesis, and so have been referencing a lot in my own discussions
            and would like to see become more widely read. In particular, both
            books are very relevant to the on-line discussions that kicked off
            from my last couple of KC articles – <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
            normal'>Problem of the Commons</i>, and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
            normal'>The Sad Best Case</i>. Each is, in its own way, about our
            species' upcoming dieback.<br>
            <br>
            <br>
            1. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>The Tropic of Chaos:
            Climate Change and the New Geography of Violence</i>. Author,
            Christian Parenti.&nbsp;<br>
            <br>
            Although this book is more journalistic than scholarly, it is well
            researched and well written. Prof. Parenti opens with an account of
            a recent cattle raid in northern Kenya, in which several of the
            participants were killed. He then starts to delve beneath its
            surface: What were the real causes of the raid, and why are such
            raids becoming increasingly common? His analysis expands,
            eventually to cover most of the area suggested by the book's title;
            the vast band of poor, marginal and failed states that now
            encircles our planet between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.
            How did conditions in these states become so bad? How culpable are
            we in the relatively rich and stable northern hemisphere states?
            What effective mitigations, if any, could now be tried; and – with
            or without such mitigations – what is the next few decades'
            prognosis for the tropical states against their background of still
            rapidly rising populations, and our climate disruption and resource
            depletion?&nbsp;<br>
            <br>
            Parenti's overall picture is pretty bleak. His main points are: (1)
            That we are highly culpable: (2) That worthwhile mitigations,
            though still possible, are of vanishingly small likelihood
            politically: (3) That our main present responses can be lumped
            under the heading of 'armed lifeboat' preparation. Essentially,
            positioning ourselves to close our borders and ride out the coming
            storm while our less fortunate neighbors perish: (4) That even
            beyond its obvious moral bankruptcy, an armed lifeboat response
            will be virtually impossible to implement effectively. That we are,
            functionally, all in this together.<br>
            <br>
            The book's main value in relation to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
            normal'>Leaving Truth</i> is in showing the degree to which our
            collapse has already started, and in suggesting how much worse it
            is soon likely to become. Its facts and arguments indicate, as <i
            style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Leaving Truth</i> does, that 'business
            as usual' will not suffice to take us through this storm. The
            radical solution that <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Leaving
            Truth</i> argues for is not anticipated, but the importance of our
            finding and implementing such a solution is strongly is strongly
            reinforced.&nbsp;<br>
            <br>
            <br>
            2. <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Why the West Rules – For
            Now: The Patterns of History, and what They Reveal About the Future</i>.
            Author, Ian Morris.<br>
            <br>
            Again, this is a journalistic rather than scholarly work. Prof.
            Morris is pitching to a general educated reader, in short clear
            sentences, and with plenty of anecdotal and story telling content
            to pull the reader along. Nevertheless, good background scholarship
            is provided in the book's appendices and referenced URLs.
            Especially praiseworthy is Morris' habit of stating the logical
            requirements for all of his more contentious claims; in essence,
            clarifying what an opponent would need to establish in order to
            controvert them.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:
            11.5pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:
            11.5pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'>The book
            opens with a nice alternative history 'reconstruction': Britain as
            a vassal state of China, and Queen Victoria receiving a triumphal
            Chinese delegation in London. It asks why history took instead the
            opposite path: with the Chinese opium war being won by British
            gunboats, and Lord Melbourne even being able to force China to foot
            the bill for Britain's economic policing action against it. Morris
            proposes to answer this through a broad survey of development in
            both regions, and starts his analysis from approximately 12,000 BCE
            (the end of our last ice age, and – as our populations then
            rebounded to a critical density in certain favorable locations –
            the beginning of our shift from hunter-gatherer to agricultural
            food production). <o:p></o:p></span></p>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:
            11.5pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:
            11.5pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'>He uses
            his first few chapters to provide a functional definition of 'East'
            and 'West', and to explain and justify his main quantitative tool
            for comparison of their industrial and military strengths. He calls
            this tool, pretty boldly, a 'social development index'. He picks
            four criteria* which, as he explains, can be functionally
            quantified from our present paleoanthropological knowledge (from
            site excavations, radio-carbon dating, pollen analysis, glacial ice
            core analyses, and then increasingly – from about 5,000 BCE forward
            – written records). He combines these, with suitable weighting, to
            give an overall social development score; and then tracks the fluctuation
            of this score for both Eastern and Western towns, city states,
            empires and nation states right up to the present.&nbsp;<br>
            <br>
            The take away points from his analysis are (1) That our present
            western lead is shrinking fast, and, barring now unforeseeable new
            factors, will disappear completely within the next few decades. (2)
            That in both East and West our social development has already hit
            several of what he calls 'hard ceilings': Numerical levels that we
            could only exceed through some large and fundamental change, such
            as the shift from hunting-gathering to agriculture, or
            rain-dependent to controlled-river irrigation, or clan chieftain to
            religion-supported god-king hierarchal organization. He shows that
            we have never been able to pause at these ceilings: That we either
            figure out an effective change, and thereby break through to the
            next level, or we fall back; with falling back typically involving
            most or all of our old 'friends', of draught, famine, war and
            epidemic disease. Morris' sober and compelling documentation of how
            many times, and how comprehensively, we have already fallen back
            forms the book's first important bridge to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
            normal'>Leaving Truth</i>. I often hear, from the 'nothing's really
            broke so nothing needs fixing' majority, that we can't have a
            species wide crash because we have never had anything like it so
            far. Logically, this position has more holes than a colander; but
            Morris here, and Jarred Diamond in his 2005 book <i
            style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Collapse</i>, also does us the
            favor of controverting it directly on the evidence. As both books
            document, we have had many crashes, and right up to the level of
            the largest organizational entities (think Roman and British
            empires) that were then in existence. To the extent that our
            international financial and goods-trading systems have now completed
            our 'globalization', our next large crash will necessarily be
            species-wide.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:
            11.5pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:
            11.5pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'>Morris'
            book also has a second and deeper tie-in to <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
            normal'>Leaving Truth</i>. Its last few chapters are concerned,
            like Parenti's book, with how bad our situation is soon likely to
            become in the absence of some radical change. But what emerges
            clearly from the book's main body – from Morris' impressive review
            of our ups and downs of social development in both East and West
            over our whole span of evidence-based history – is a deeper understanding
            of how bad things have always been. To insert here the first couple
            of paragraphs from <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Leaving
            Truth</i>'s introduction:<br>
            <br>
            </span><span style='font-size:11.5pt;line-height:150%;mso-fareast-font-family:
            "Times New Roman";color:#606060'>This collection of essays started
            from an epistemological question, about the legitimacy and utility
            of our &quot;truth&quot; concept. That might sound bad enough, but
            the inquiry then went deeper. It finally ended up at the apparent
            discrepancy between the kinds of lives that most of our species and
            throughout most of its recorded history have been living, and those
            that we say we would rather have been living. To clarify; we seem
            to have been requesting pretty much Epicurus' prescription: A dry
            roof over our heads, some comfortable and esthetically pleasing
            furniture and similar possessions, a sufficiency of tasty and
            satisfying food, stability and safety for raising our children, and
            a good balance between meaningful and intellectually satisfying
            work and enough other quality time for loving and laughing with our
            mates, children and friends.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:
            11.5pt;line-height:150%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
            color:#606060'><br>
            The deep question arises from these things having always been so
            clearly possible—for members of a cooperative species that has
            been, in adaptive terms, by so far the biggest and baddest son of a
            bitch in the valley—and yet our having so substantially failed to
            achieve them. Life for most of us, and most of the time, has
            observably contained very few of the Epicurean elements; but
            instead plenty of grinding poverty, through gross political and
            economic exploitation; and premature death, through war, famine,
            pogroms and pestilence.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:
            11.5pt;line-height:150%;mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
            color:#606060'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:
            11.5pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'>Evolution
            causes us to view the past through rose colored spectacles. In the
            sense that whatever we did there 'worked' – to the degree of
            allowing us to be here – evolution must motivate us to do more of
            the same. Its best mechanism for this is to cast a rosy glow over
            our memories and history: our happy childhoods, and ‘the good old
            days’. Morris' book does the huge favor – for someone like myself,
            who is arguing for fundamental change – of temporarily dispelling
            that rosy glow.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:
            11.5pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'><br>
            *1. Per capita per day energy useage. 2. Population of delineated
            study area's largest city. 3. Capacity for information processing
            (percentage literacy, speed of communication technologies). 4.
            Military capacity (size and technology level of the largest armies
            that delineated study area could field).<o:p></o:p></span></p>
            </td>
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          </td>
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        </table>
        <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
        display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
        <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
         width="100%" style='width:100.0%;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:
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        <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
        display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
        <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
         width="100%" style='width:100.0%;border-collapse:collapse;mso-yfti-tbllook:
         1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;
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          -webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%'>
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           align=left width=599 style='width:449.25pt;border-collapse:collapse;
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           <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:
            yes'>
            <td valign=top style='padding:6.75pt 13.5pt 6.75pt 13.5pt;
            -ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%'>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape
             id="Picture_x0020_3" o:spid="_x0000_s1028" type="#_x0000_t75"
             style='position:absolute;margin-left:186.75pt;margin-top:.4pt;
             width:193.55pt;height:247.55pt;z-index:251660288;visibility:visible;
             mso-wrap-style:square;mso-width-percent:0;mso-height-percent:0;
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             mso-height-relative:page'>
             <v:imagedata src="pos-2015-q3_files/image003.png" o:title=""/>
             <w:wrap type="square"/>
            </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=258 height=330
            src="pos-2015-q3_files/image003.png" align=left hspace=12 v:shapes="Picture_x0020_3"><![endif]><b
            style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span style='font-size:14.5pt;
            mso-bidi-font-size:11.5pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'>Kernel's
            of 'Truth?'</span></b><span style='font-size:11.5pt;line-height:
            150%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:
            "Times New Roman";color:#606060'><br>
            <br>
            In the book <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Leaving Truth</i>,
            Keith makes 8 &quot;Assertions&quot;. &nbsp;In my pdf version, they
            start on p. 26. &nbsp;Everything above the essay &quot;Leaving
            Truth&quot; (&quot;A Chemical Analogy&quot;, Table of Contents,
            etc.) count in those 26 pages. &nbsp;In the earlier essay which
            morphed into “Leaving Truth” there were 12 statements and they were
            called &quot;Points&quot;. &nbsp;In the early days, Keith thought
            about his philosophy in terms of those Points; at least that is how
            he would relate it to others &nbsp;(&quot;This is from Point
            1&quot;, &quot;That is in Point 5&quot;, etc.). &nbsp;<br>
            <br>
            The very first version of the 12 Points we know of was published in
            the James Randi Educational Foundation forum on 2/28/2006.
            &nbsp;That post is still online at <a
            href="http://www.internationalskeptics.com/forums/showthread.php?t=52936">http://www.internationalskeptics.com/forums/showthread.php?t=52936</a>
            . &nbsp;The version printed in this month's &quot;Kernels of
            'Truth?'&quot; is from 2007, which is the version I had at the time
            of my most active discussions with Keith about the &quot;we'll all
            be able to agree&quot; point, #3.<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> 
            </span>I have extracted only the 12 Points themselves from that
            essay and <a
            href="http://www.poppersinversion.org/pos/2015/kt-2015-q3.php">posted
            them here</a>. <br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
            <![if !supportLineBreakNewLine]><br style='mso-special-character:
            line-break'>
            <![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></p>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:
            11.5pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'>Before
            writing this article, I never thought to match up the Points with
            the Assertions, although I did realize the first 3 were the same.
            &nbsp;Actually, the first 6 are the same, except for word
            rearrangements. &nbsp;Point 7 appears to have been jettisoned
            entirely. &nbsp;It is either a history lesson or a restatement of
            Point 4. &nbsp;However, the part that restates Point 4 does so in a
            very illuminating way:<br>
            <br>
            </span><span style='font-size:11.5pt;line-height:150%;mso-fareast-font-family:
            "Times New Roman";color:#606060'>We can see that &quot;We embrace X
            as 'the truth', upon the basis of it's being 'the truth'&quot;,
            just can’t fly … If we collectively pretend that it does fly then
            any proposal, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>no matter how
            absurd</i> [author's emphasis], can be claimed - through 'faith' -
            as knowledge. I believe, and will attempt to show, that <b
            style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
            normal'>this is exactly the main task for which we have been
            maintaining our 'truth' concept</i></b> [emphasis mine]. &nbsp;I
            will concede have been using it for other tasks; largely, I think,
            in order to sustain our illusion of its rational legitimacy. But I
            will show that <b style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i
            style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>it is only for this particular
            task that we have ever needed it</i></b> [emphasis mine].&quot;</span><span
            style='font-size:11.5pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'><br>
            <br>
            To continue, Points 8, 9, and 10 appear to have been re-organized
            into Assertions 7 and 8. &nbsp;Point 11 has been replaced by the
            new Knowledge Selection Procedure (KSP). &nbsp;Point 12 was pretty
            much already covered by Point 3, but of course it would never do to
            have 11 Points!<br>
            <br>
            Most of Keith's points seemed valid, even if I did not understand
            them fully. &nbsp;I even managed to avoid the trap I see so many
            people fall into, of seeing Truth as terminal point on the
            certainty axis; such that if we could obtain certainty, or perhaps
            even if a certainty existed that we could not obtain, Keith's
            thesis would fail.<br>
            <br>
            But Point 3 was different. &nbsp;What do you mean we will all be
            able to agree … on everything? &nbsp;But that's precisely what
            Point 3 says, as it's first sentence: &quot;That all conflicts
            between logically exclusive knowledge proposals are
            resolvable.&quot; &nbsp;That's one bold statement, and one that
            demands a few caveats which I'll get to later, but it first it
            should be clarified. &nbsp;As it stands, it sounds like he's saying
            we can obtain certainty, and nothing in the text of Point 3 says
            otherwise. &nbsp;What he's actually saying is that any two persons
            who abide by his few simple and obvious rules, and approach a question
            honestly, will come to agreement on which proposal to <b
            style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
            normal'>prefer</i></b> if they discuss the matter long enough.<br>
            <br>
            I call Point 3 the &quot;Sewell Conjecture&quot;, and argued with
            Keith extensively as to its validity. &nbsp;The initial phase of
            our discussion can be found in the <a
            href="http://www.poppersinversion.org/pos/2014/kt-2014-09.html">Sep
            2014 &quot;Kernels of 'Truth?'&quot;</a>. &nbsp;I was planning to
            continue the saga this quarter, but Keith wanted me to translate
            the mathematical notation into English, and that time vortex I was
            not going to fly into. &nbsp;Instead, I will try to state as
            clearly as I can what Point/Assertion 3 actually means.<br>
            <br>
            </span><!--[if gte vml 1]><v:shape id="_x0000_s1029" type="#_x0000_t75"
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             mso-position-horizontal-relative:text;mso-position-vertical:absolute;
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             mso-height-relative:page'>
             <v:imagedata src="pos-2015-q3_files/image004.jpg" o:title=""/>
             <w:wrap type="square"/>
            </v:shape><![endif]--><![if !vml]><img width=229 height=98
            src="pos-2015-q3_files/image005.jpg" align=left hspace=12 v:shapes="_x0000_s1029"><![endif]><span
            style='font-size:11.5pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'>The
            importance of Point 3 was never in doubt. &nbsp;Without it, you
            have epistemological nihilism - a valid philosophy that is perhaps
            more dangerous than the extant invalid ones. &nbsp;But who would
            have thought that Truth and knowledge were on a teeter-totter; that
            as our Truth concept is abandoned, our ability to acquire knowledge
            is enhanced? &nbsp;That is what the Sewell Conjecture is saying,
            and what the introductory essay of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
            normal'>Leaving Truth</i>, &quot;A Chemical Analogy&quot;, is
            really all about.<br>
            <br>
            So what are those &quot;few simple rules&quot; that people need to
            follow to insure that they will find agreement? Interestingly, you
            won't find them in 'Truth?', at least not in bundled form. &nbsp;I'm
            sure Keith had them in mind, but they were perhaps too
            &quot;obvious&quot; to write down. &nbsp;They were made explicit in
            the later essay &quot;Leaving Truth&quot; as the desirable
            attributes for a good Knowledge Selection Procedure.
            &nbsp;Basically: a KSP should be:&nbsp;<br>
            1. &nbsp; &nbsp;Functional – clearly selecting some proposals while
            rejecting others<br>
            2. &nbsp; &nbsp;Coherent – incapable of selecting logically
            exclusive proposals<br>
            3. &nbsp; &nbsp;Pragmatic – it must select at least all of our
            current proposals that we can see to be essential to our survival.<br>
            The third doesn't seem so obvious at first blush, but the longer
            you think about it, the more obvious it gets. &nbsp;All sorts of
            KSPs might be imagined that are functional, coherent, and totally
            useless. &nbsp;Rule #3 applies what mathematicians would call a
            &quot;boundary condition&quot; on the functional, coherent family
            of KSPs.&nbsp;<br>
            <br>
            To reiterate, the Sewell Conjecture says that any two people, even
            if they are using different Knowledge Selection Procedures – as
            long as they are seeking an honest (agenda free) resolution to some
            real question (A or not A?), and submit their KSPs to the above
            three rules in discussions between them – eventually they will come
            to the same decision between A and not A.<br>
            <br>
            It turns out the Sewell Conjecture is a lot easier to scoff at than
            to disprove. &nbsp;It must first be noted that any disproof must be
            a work of fiction since the honesty requirement will never be met
            in real life (even in science). &nbsp;But even as I worked on
            creating a fictional account, Keith always found something wrong
            with it. &nbsp;I would go back and work on it some more. &nbsp;I
            tweaked my story bit by bit, almost to the point of begging the
            question. &nbsp;Keith did finally agree that in this highly
            artificial example my two protagonists could honestly come to
            different conclusions. &nbsp;<br>
            <br>
            Fortunately we still have a Point 3 because I was reduced to
            begging the question. &nbsp;The whole set of emails with lavish
            story line in mathematical notation can scarcely be translated into
            English, but it can be summed up in two sentences:
            &nbsp;&quot;Throw in whatever other details you need to believe I'm
            guilty&quot; and &quot;I have my memory and whatever other
            corroborating evidence I need to believe I'm innocent&quot;. &nbsp;<i
            style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Ergo</i> Point 3 fails, but with
            a pragmatically unacceptable degree of artificiality.<br>
            <br>
            So the Knowledge Selection Procedure is a sound tool for
            accomplishing its task. &nbsp;To finish the construction of that
            Truth-knowledge teeter-totter, we circle back to that illuminating
            section of Point 7 (as quoted above). &nbsp;If the only task for
            which we ever <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>needed</i>
            Truth was to uphold empirically ungrounded proposals, then <b
            style='mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
            normal'>any chipping away at our collective use of our truth
            concept will lift up and fortify empirically grounded ones</i></b>.**<br>
            <br>
            Cheers,<o:p></o:p></span></p>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:
            11.5pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'>Gary<br>
            <br>
            An interesting side note: Our website name, &quot;Popper's
            Inversion&quot;, appears nowhere in <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:
            normal'>Leaving Truth</i>, but it does several times in the
            earliest known version of the 12 Points.&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:
            11.5pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:
            11.5pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'>**
            Editorial endnote from Keith: Gary’s statement there, in the bold
            type, gives a better cryptic summary of our position than I’ve ever
            been able to write. Our acceptance and retention of proposals as
            knowledge on the basis of their possession of an implicitly
            extra-human property (‘truth’), does seem to our little band here
            at Popper’s Inversion to stand in clear logical opposition to our
            acceptance and retention of them on the basis of our own ‘merely’
            evidence grounded preference. Basically, the two options seem to
            represent – as in Gary’s teeter-totter illustration – different and
            logically exclusive ways of using human minds; with the implication
            that we can initially train, and then further develop, our minds to
            be good at the one, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>or at the
            other</i>. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:
            11.5pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
            <p class=MsoNormal style='line-height:150%'><span style='font-size:
            11.5pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Helvetica","sans-serif";
            mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";color:#606060'>I try to
            explain in LT how and why the truth based option has been dominant
            throughout our species’ history to date. But we at PI believe that
            its antithesis now offers our last and best hope for being able to
            pull back on the joystick hard enough to salvage something like a
            landing from our species’ present climate disruption crash dive.
            Reason has, potentially, enough strength to ease back on the stick.
            But, as I try to show in LT’s first essay, ‘A Chemical Analogy’,
            reason is now in something like the condition of Popeye near the
            end of a long fight with Brutus. We at PI believe that
            implementation of the four changes for which I argue in Leaving
            Truth would amount to throwing in the can of spinach.<span
            style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><o:p></o:p></span></p>
            </td>
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          </td>
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        </table>
        <p class=MsoNormal><span style='mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
        display:none;mso-hide:all'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
        <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=0
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        <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:
        "Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p>
        </td>
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NonComposMentisAuthor Commented:
Thank you for your replies.

Ray - as far as the publishing strategy goes, you are probably right.

Dave, Ray - The problem is not squarely on the shoulders of my server.  As alluded to in my original question, the code I wanted to insert was already tested and working.

Here is a skeletal demo page with the very same php code that was in the newsletter link I gave you:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
    <head>
        <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
        <title>PHP Working Demo</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <h3>Text Before PHP code</h3>
        <?php
              $report = "<p>This sentence is inside php brackets.</p>";
              echo $report;
        ?>
      <h3>Text After PHP code</h3>
    </body>
</html>

I put it in the same folder as before:
http://www.poppersinversion.org/pos/2015/demo.php .

The demo works perfectly from my server.  So if the newsletter works for you and not me, there must be some interplay between my server and and the newsletter document that causes it to fail on my server.  If it helps, I'm linking the php configuration dump here.

The bottom line in this situation is that my hosting service is just going to say their php service works just fine.

Thank you,
NCM
0
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hieloCommented:
Hmmm, let's rule out encoding problems.  Install Notepad++ if you don't have it.  Then Open your MS Office auto-generated file in Notepad++.  Then at the top, click on "Encoding > Convert to UTF-8 without BOM".  Then save your file and upload it to your server to see if that helps.
2

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NonComposMentisAuthor Commented:
Thanks, hielo - That did it!

NCM
0
NonComposMentisAuthor Commented:
hielo resolved my issue and thereby earns the most points.  Ray Paseur put in significant effort and while he didn't get me to a resolution this time, he did provide me with a resource (validator.w3.org) which I will no doubt make good use of in the future.
0
Dave BaldwinFixer of ProblemsCommented:
That makes sense.  I downloaded your file and opened it in my code editor which probably removed the BOM because I certainly didn't see it.
0
Ray PaseurCommented:
For more information on the issues you may encounter when you're using the less popular (read "fringe") character encodings, check out this article.  PHP is making a full-on push to move to UTF-8.
http://www.experts-exchange.com/Web_Development/Web_Languages-Standards/PHP/A_11880-Unicode-PHP-and-Character-Collisions.html
0
NonComposMentisAuthor Commented:
Thanks, Ray.

Dave - I thought of that too, after the question was closed.  What if I just take what the browser sees as its "page source" and re-post that as a php file?  But right now I've got a deadline to meet.
0
Dave BaldwinFixer of ProblemsCommented:
No, that probably won't work because it doesn't automatically remove the BOM.  If your editor will do that, then it will work.
0
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