What is Flat based LoadBalancer works?

I am curious that how a Flat based LoadBalancer works?

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It is possible to avoid the potential bottleneck in the NAT based method by sending the traffic not directly over the load balancer. In the flat based method, the large return data traffic between server and client is transported on direct way and therefore disburdens the load balancer.[41] This is called "Direct Server Return" (DSR) and describes a method of bypassing the load balancer on an outbound connection.[42] The request of a client is sent first to the load balancer. By manipulating the MAC address while keeping the IP address, the client is tricked that he communicates continuously with a single server (the load balancer) although he already does with the "real server".[43] To implement a flat based structure only a single subnet is needed (instead of two in the NAT based method), but the server and load balancer has to be connected over a switch.[44] The rules on which the load balancing is based can be here the same like mentioned before in subchapter 3.2.2., while the technical realizations are different. Talking about the before mentioned rule based on the URL for example, here it would be namely a layer-7 switch that is responsible for this kind of load balancing.[45] But because this paper is only an introduction to load balancing in general, no further more detailed information to it is given.

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