I'm interested in learning about encryption methods that are relevant to industry today. AES-256 vs. 3DES vs. DES vs. SSL/TLS vs PPTP vs. IPSec vs. OTHERS.
What is the difference, what are obvious ways to identify each, and what are the main uses of each? Please break down into quick notes on each, which can assist myself and others to absorb the material quickly. I have been reading wiki pages and I would like this information condensed and ELI5'd.