Exchange2010 - Issues with incoming email to one of my users bouncing

I have a user that is having some issues with an incoming email from an one outside customer.  If the customer creates a new email to my user, it bounces back saying "The following organization rejected your message: mail.MyExchangeServer.com".  If the customer replies to a existing email thread, the email will be delivered fine to my users.  I have tested new outside emails to my user from google, yahoo, etc and new email are delivered fine.  It seems to be isolated to this once customer.  I haven't had any other issues or reports of bounce back from any of my other users/customers.  I had the custome try to type in the full email address of my user, not using auto file, but no change.  I had the customer email me, same issues.  I have check and neither of us are on any type of blacklist.  I checked my spam server and its not even showing the bounce back email hitting it.

Any thoughts, is the issues on my email server or the customer's email server or somewhere else?  THX - John
JDS42Asked:
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Adam BrownSr Solutions ArchitectCommented:
Error 571 is most often associated with spam blocks. Check your spam filter and white list the domain.
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KimputerCommented:
Postin the full mail bounces would be nice.
However, I don't think he properly typed the email address. I think he may use autocomplete still.
Did you really ask them to REMOVE the autocomplete entry? (It has an X icon behind it).
Another thing you can try is to ask them to use the ADDRESS BOOK. And a new entry, with the email again typed in.
Then send the email using mouseclick > FROM > select user from addressbook.
This method should be more reliable than typing (where if they don't really delete it, they still use it, even though they're convinced they're not).
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Adam BrownSr Solutions ArchitectCommented:
It's pretty much impossible to properly diagnose mail bounces without either the full bounce message (preferably) or the error code number (at a minimum). There are too many possible things that could cause a mail to bounce for us to even speculate without that data.
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Raheman M. AbdulSenior Infrastructure Support Analyst & Systems DeveloperCommented:
considering your case, there can be only 2 options left:

1. double check the sender is not using the cached entries while sending email.
2. double check the email address the sender is using.
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JDS42Author Commented:
Thanks for the information.  The only information I got to from the customer having issues is they are getting a bounce back from my mail server "#5.0.0 SMTP; 571 Delivery not authorized, message refused> #SMTP#" and that replies to existing emails works (most of the time) and new emails get the above message.    I told them to delete the address from exchange and manual type it in, which they said they did but it still failed.  This person/company is the only one having issues sending to us, so I am assuming it has to be something on there side.  John
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JDS42Author Commented:
Thanks Adam, I will take a look at the Spam settings on my firewall and spamtitan.  I spoke with the person at the company that is having issues emailing us, turns out they starting getting the bounce back around the same time we had to update our Exchange certificate (IIS,SMTP),  might be related but not sure, we are not having any issues from any other inbound emails sources other than theirs.
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ArneLoviusCommented:
Is this customer able to send emails to other addresses on your domain ?

The 571 is probably being generated from spamtitan, I would suggest checking the spamtitan logs.
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JDS42Author Commented:
I had the customer try to send to me and same thing, some bounce some didnt.  It's not limited to just one of my email accounts.  I have added the customer's domain to my firewall and spamtitan just incase but I didn't see anything in the logs about emails being bounced backed or flagged.
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