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Need To Find FireFox Binary Path For Python Selenium On Windows 7

Posted on 2016-09-30
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Last Modified: 2016-10-06
I keep getting this message trying to get the firefox driver to work saying can't find file.  I think it is seeking the binary.

C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins>python expertsbrazil.py
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "expertsbrazil.py", line 32, in <module>
    driver = webdriver.Firefox(firefox_binary=binary)
  File "C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python35\lib\si
te-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\webdriver.py", line 80, in __init__
    self.binary, timeout)
  File "C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python35\lib\si
te-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\extension_connection.py", line 52, in __i
nit__
    self.binary.launch_browser(self.profile, timeout=timeout)
  File "C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python35\lib\si
te-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\firefox_binary.py", line 67, in launch_br
owser
    self._start_from_profile_path(self.profile.path)
  File "C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python35\lib\si
te-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\firefox_binary.py", line 90, in _start_fr
om_profile_path
    env=self._firefox_env)
  File "C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python35\lib\su
bprocess.py", line 947, in __init__
    restore_signals, start_new_session)
  File "C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python35\lib\su
bprocess.py", line 1224, in _execute_child
    startupinfo)
FileNotFoundError: [WinError 2] The system cannot find the file specified

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Please help me to get rid of this error.

Thanks,
0
Comment
Question by:sharingsunshine
  • 8
  • 4
  • 3
15 Comments
 
LVL 78

Expert Comment

by:David Johnson, CD, MVP
ID: 41824570
your source code would be appreciated
Try this code
http://www.marinamele.com/selenium-tutorial-web-scraping-with-selenium-and-python
import time
from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By
from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import WebDriverWait
from selenium.webdriver.support import expected_conditions as EC
from selenium.common.exceptions import TimeoutException
 
 
def init_driver():
    driver = webdriver.Firefox()
    driver.wait = WebDriverWait(driver, 5)
    return driver
 
 
def lookup(driver, query):
    driver.get("http://www.google.com")
    try:
        box = driver.wait.until(EC.presence_of_element_located(
            (By.NAME, "q")))
        button = driver.wait.until(EC.element_to_be_clickable(
            (By.NAME, "btnK")))
        box.send_keys(query)
        button.click()
    except TimeoutException:
        print("Box or Button not found in google.com")
 
if __name__ == "__main__":
    driver = init_driver()
    lookup(driver, "Selenium")
    time.sleep(5)
    driver.quit()

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0
 

Author Comment

by:sharingsunshine
ID: 41825005
I will be glad to show you my code but it is quite long.  So instead I thought just following what you gave above would probably be easier.  Initially I got the same error about the binary so I added the code in the error message to the script listed below.

C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins>python expertsfirefox.py
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "expertsfirefox.py", line 28, in <module>
    driver = init_driver()
  File "expertsfirefox.py", line 10, in init_driver
    driver = webdriver.Firefox()
  File "C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python35\lib\si
te-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\webdriver.py", line 55, in __init__
    self.binary = firefox_binary or capabilities.get("binary", FirefoxBinary())
  File "C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python35\lib\si
te-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\firefox_binary.py", line 50, in __init__
    "binary = FirefoxBinary('/path/to/binary')\ndriver = webdriver.Firefox(firef
ox_binary=binary)")
Exception: Failed to find firefox binary. You can set it by specifying the path
to 'firefox_binary':

from selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_binary import FirefoxBinary

binary = FirefoxBinary('/path/to/binary')
driver = webdriver.Firefox(firefox_binary=binary)

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then I ran it with these script modifications

import time
from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By
from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import WebDriverWait
from selenium.webdriver.support import expected_conditions as EC
from selenium.common.exceptions import TimeoutException
from selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_binary import FirefoxBinary

binary = FirefoxBinary('\\Users\\Randal J. Watkins\\FireFox_Driver\\')
driver = webdriver.Firefox(firefox_binary=binary)
 
def init_driver():
    driver = webdriver.Firefox()
    driver.wait = WebDriverWait(driver, 5)
    return driver
 
 
def lookup(driver, query):
    driver.get("http://www.google.com")
    try:
        box = driver.wait.until(EC.presence_of_element_located(
            (By.NAME, "q")))
        button = driver.wait.until(EC.element_to_be_clickable(
            (By.NAME, "btnK")))
        box.send_keys(query)
        button.click()
    except TimeoutException:
        print("Box or Button not found in google.com")
 
if __name__ == "__main__":
    driver = init_driver()
    lookup(driver, "Selenium")
    time.sleep(5)
    driver.quit()

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In which it gave these errors

C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins>python expertsfirefox.py
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "expertsfirefox.py", line 10, in <module>
    driver = webdriver.Firefox(firefox_binary=binary)
  File "C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python35\lib\si
te-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\webdriver.py", line 80, in __init__
    self.binary, timeout)
  File "C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python35\lib\si
te-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\extension_connection.py", line 52, in __i
nit__
    self.binary.launch_browser(self.profile, timeout=timeout)
  File "C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python35\lib\si
te-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\firefox_binary.py", line 67, in launch_br
owser
    self._start_from_profile_path(self.profile.path)
  File "C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python35\lib\si
te-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\firefox_binary.py", line 90, in _start_fr
om_profile_path
    env=self._firefox_env)
  File "C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python35\lib\su
bprocess.py", line 947, in __init__
    restore_signals, start_new_session)
  File "C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python35\lib\su
bprocess.py", line 1224, in _execute_child
    startupinfo)
PermissionError: [WinError 5] Access is denied

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I am not a frequent user of Windows so permissions is something I am not clear about how to change.

Thanks,
0
 
LVL 78

Assisted Solution

by:David Johnson, CD, MVP
David Johnson, CD, MVP earned 100 total points
ID: 41825093
putting code in c:\users\appdata\ is not a good idea. Better to put it in a subdirectory of c:\
0
 
LVL 16

Expert Comment

by:gelonida
ID: 41825166
shouldn't your firefox binary be something like in r"C:\Program Files\Mozilla Firefox\"
(I'm guessing the path a little as I don't have a windows PC nearby)?
0
 

Author Comment

by:sharingsunshine
ID: 41827110
shouldn't your firefox binary be something like in r"C:\Program Files\Mozilla Firefox\"
(I'm guessing the path a little as I don't have a windows PC nearby)? 

Open in new window


Changing it to
binary = FirefoxBinary('\\Program Files (x86)\\Mozilla Firefox\\')
OR
binary = FirefoxBinary('\\Program Files (x86)\\Mozilla Firefox\\browser\\')

all produce the same error - see below

C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins>python expertsfirefox.py
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "expertsfirefox.py", line 12, in <module>
    driver = webdriver.Firefox(firefox_binary=binary)
  File "C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python35\lib\si
te-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\webdriver.py", line 80, in __init__
    self.binary, timeout)
  File "C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python35\lib\si
te-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\extension_connection.py", line 52, in __i
nit__
    self.binary.launch_browser(self.profile, timeout=timeout)
  File "C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python35\lib\si
te-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\firefox_binary.py", line 67, in launch_br
owser
    self._start_from_profile_path(self.profile.path)
  File "C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python35\lib\si
te-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\firefox_binary.py", line 90, in _start_fr
om_profile_path
    env=self._firefox_env)
  File "C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python35\lib\su
bprocess.py", line 947, in __init__
    restore_signals, start_new_session)
  File "C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python35\lib\su
bprocess.py", line 1224, in _execute_child
    startupinfo)
PermissionError: [WinError 5] Access is denied

putting code in c:\users\appdata\ is not a good idea. Better to put it in a subdirectory of c:\ 

Open in new window


I didn't choose the location.  When I installed Python it defaulted to that location.  If I need to move it please tell me the commands to do it.
0
 

Author Comment

by:sharingsunshine
ID: 41827334
Hi David,

I deleted Python and reinstalled it in C: but I am still getting the same error:

C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins>python expertsfirefox.py
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "expertsfirefox.py", line 12, in <module>
    driver = webdriver.Firefox(firefox_binary=binary)
  File "C:\Python35\lib\site-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\webdriver.py",
line 80, in __init__
    self.binary, timeout)
  File "C:\Python35\lib\site-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\extension_conne
ction.py", line 52, in __init__
    self.binary.launch_browser(self.profile, timeout=timeout)
  File "C:\Python35\lib\site-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\firefox_binary.
py", line 67, in launch_browser
    self._start_from_profile_path(self.profile.path)
  File "C:\Python35\lib\site-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\firefox_binary.
py", line 90, in _start_from_profile_path
    env=self._firefox_env)
  File "C:\Python35\lib\subprocess.py", line 947, in __init__
    restore_signals, start_new_session)
  File "C:\Python35\lib\subprocess.py", line 1224, in _execute_child
    startupinfo)
PermissionError: [WinError 5] Access is denied

Open in new window


Please someone tell me how to fix this issue.
0
 
LVL 78

Expert Comment

by:David Johnson, CD, MVP
ID: 41827441
from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_binary import FirefoxBinary

binary = FirefoxBinary('path/to/binary')
driver = webdriver.Firefox(firefox_binary=binary)

The default path FirefoxDriver looking for is at %PROGRAMFILES%\Mozilla Firefox\firefox.exe. See FirefoxDriver

Or add your path of Firefox binary to Windows' PATH.
0
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Author Comment

by:sharingsunshine
ID: 41828544
this is my code
import time
from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By
from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import WebDriverWait
from selenium.webdriver.support import expected_conditions as EC
from selenium.common.exceptions import TimeoutException
from selenium.webdriver.firefox.firefox_binary import FirefoxBinary

binary = FirefoxBinary('C:\Program Files\Mozilla Firefox\firefox.exe')

driver = webdriver.Firefox(firefox_binary=binary)
 
def init_driver():
    driver = webdriver.Firefox()
    driver.wait = WebDriverWait(driver, 5)
    return driver
 
 
def lookup(driver, query):
    driver.get("http://www.google.com")
    try:
        box = driver.wait.until(EC.presence_of_element_located(
            (By.NAME, "q")))
        button = driver.wait.until(EC.element_to_be_clickable(
            (By.NAME, "btnK")))
        box.send_keys(query)
        button.click()
    except TimeoutException:
        print("Box or Button not found in google.com")
 
if __name__ == "__main__":
    driver = init_driver()
    lookup(driver, "Selenium")
    time.sleep(5)
    driver.quit()

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I am getting this error now even after trying /frefiox or /firefox.exe

C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins>python expertsfirefox.py
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "expertsfirefox.py", line 11, in <module>
    driver = webdriver.Firefox(firefox_binary=binary)
  File "C:\Python35\lib\site-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\webdriver.py",
line 80, in __init__
    self.binary, timeout)
  File "C:\Python35\lib\site-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\extension_conne
ction.py", line 52, in __init__
    self.binary.launch_browser(self.profile, timeout=timeout)
  File "C:\Python35\lib\site-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\firefox_binary.
py", line 67, in launch_browser
    self._start_from_profile_path(self.profile.path)
  File "C:\Python35\lib\site-packages\selenium\webdriver\firefox\firefox_binary.
py", line 90, in _start_from_profile_path
    env=self._firefox_env)
  File "C:\Python35\lib\subprocess.py", line 947, in __init__
    restore_signals, start_new_session)
  File "C:\Python35\lib\subprocess.py", line 1224, in _execute_child
    startupinfo)
FileNotFoundError: [WinError 2] The system cannot find the file specified

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This is what the file structure looks like
https://gyazo.com/b2474212a74dccf9d469b6454121de1b

Thanks,
0
 
LVL 16

Expert Comment

by:gelonida
ID: 41828688
This line is wrong, though I'm not sure it's enough to fix your problem, but it definetly has to be changed
binary = FirefoxBinary('C:\Program Files\Mozilla Firefox\firefox.exe')

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The '\f' of firefox is not escaped and will thus represent the form feed character and not a '\' character followed by an 'f' character.
(exactly as '\n' is the special line feed character and '\r' the carriage return character)

use either
# escape every '\' character by replacing it with '\\'
binary = FirefoxBinary('C:\\Program Files\\Mozilla Firefox\\firefox.exe')

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or (in my opinion) the nicer raw string:
 # tell python that this is a raw string by prefixing the string with and 'r' character
binary = FirefoxBinary(r'C:\Program Files\Mozilla Firefox\firefox.exe')

Open in new window

or just avoid the '\' character by replacing them with '/' (Windows normally should support this'
 binary = FirefoxBinary(r'C:/Program Files/Mozilla Firefox/firefox.exe')

Open in new window

0
 

Author Comment

by:sharingsunshine
ID: 41829072
I had used this variation before but wasn't sure why I just saw it on the web.  Glad to know why now.
binary = FirefoxBinary('C:\\Program Files (x86)\\Mozilla Firefox\\firefox.exe')

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However I am getting this error now
(ff) C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins>python expertsfirefox.py
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "expertsfirefox.py", line 11, in <module>
    driver = webdriver.Firefox(firefox_binary=binary)
  File "C:\Users\RANDAL~1.WAT\Envs\ff\lib\site-packages\selenium\webdriver\firef
ox\webdriver.py", line 80, in __init__
    self.binary, timeout)
  File "C:\Users\RANDAL~1.WAT\Envs\ff\lib\site-packages\selenium\webdriver\firef
ox\extension_connection.py", line 52, in __init__
    self.binary.launch_browser(self.profile, timeout=timeout)
  File "C:\Users\RANDAL~1.WAT\Envs\ff\lib\site-packages\selenium\webdriver\firef
ox\firefox_binary.py", line 67, in launch_browser
    self._start_from_profile_path(self.profile.path)
  File "C:\Users\RANDAL~1.WAT\Envs\ff\lib\site-packages\selenium\webdriver\firef
ox\firefox_binary.py", line 90, in _start_from_profile_path
    env=self._firefox_env)
  File "c:\python35\Lib\subprocess.py", line 947, in __init__
    restore_signals, start_new_session)
  File "c:\python35\Lib\subprocess.py", line 1224, in _execute_child
    startupinfo)
FileNotFoundError: [WinError 2] The system cannot find the file specified

Open in new window


Thanks
0
 
LVL 16

Expert Comment

by:gelonida
ID: 41831302
Do you have pip installed?
Can you start your script from the command line?
If yes, then I would propose to install ipdb,
add a hook to your script to start the debugger on any exception, go back in the stack trace and check related variables.

Following script has nothing to do with your problem, but shows how to activate the interactive python debugger on any exception and thus allowing you to interactively get more information about the issue, like for example the exact filename, that is supposedly not found by subprocess.Popen.
Copy the first part of this script into your script and start it from the command line

# Add these lines to your main script
import sys
import traceback

def pdb_hook(type_, value, tb):
    """ a hook function, that can be assigned to
        sys.excepthook
        this will automatically start a debugger when
        an exception occured
    """
    if hasattr(sys, 'ps1') or  not sys.stderr.isatty():
        sys.__excepthook__(type_, value, tb)
    else:
        try:
            import ipdb as _pdb# pylint: disable=F0401
        except ImportError:
            import pdb as _pdb
        traceback.print_exception(type_, value, tb)
        if _pdb.__name__ == 'pdb':
            print("you can install ipdb to have"
                " a python debugger with slightly better"
                " interactive behaviour (tab-completion)\n")
        print("Press:\n"
            "'w' to get a the stack frame,\n"
            "'u' to move up the stack frame\n"
            "'d' to move down the stack frame\n"
            "'q' to quit\n"
            "'h' for help\n"
            "'print(varname)' to display the value of a variable\n"
        )

        _pdb.pm()

# activate the hook on any exception
sys.excepthook = pdb_hook


## These lines are just there to show you how the debugger is working
def test(a):
    print("entering test")
    b = 2*a
    c = 1 / 0 # this will create an exception and thus call the debug hook
    print("leaving test")

def test2(a):
    print("entering test2")
    b = 2* a
    test(b)
    print("leaving test2")

a = 3
c = a * a
test2(a)

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Perhaps this way you can find out and tell us which exact file python doesn't find.
0
 

Author Comment

by:sharingsunshine
ID: 41832545
I like your suggestion but in the interim I read that the 64 bit version wasn't entirely compatible with all python modules.

Consequently, I rebuilt my python installation as 32 bit and it now gives a different error.  I have both pythons installed but and I am using virtualenvwrapper-win and virtualenv but I am not clear how to use the non default version of Python in my virtualenv.

If I use this binary
binary = FirefoxBinary('C:\\Program Files\\Mozilla Firefox\\firefox')

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I get this error

(ff2) C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins>Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "expertsfirefox.py", line 44, in <module>
    lookup(driver, "Selenium")
  File "expertsfirefox.py", line 38, in lookup
    button.click()
  File "C:\Users\RANDAL~1.WAT\Envs\ff2\lib\site-packages\selenium\webdriver\remo
te\webelement.py", line 72, in click
    self._execute(Command.CLICK_ELEMENT)
  File "C:\Users\RANDAL~1.WAT\Envs\ff2\lib\site-packages\selenium\webdriver\remo
te\webelement.py", line 461, in _execute
    return self._parent.execute(command, params)
  File "C:\Users\RANDAL~1.WAT\Envs\ff2\lib\site-packages\selenium\webdriver\remo
te\webdriver.py", line 236, in execute
    self.error_handler.check_response(response)
  File "C:\Users\RANDAL~1.WAT\Envs\ff2\lib\site-packages\selenium\webdriver\remo
te\errorhandler.py", line 192, in check_response
    raise exception_class(message, screen, stacktrace)
selenium.common.exceptions.ElementNotVisibleException: Message: Element is not c
urrently visible and so may not be interacted with
Stacktrace:
    at fxdriver.preconditions.visible (file:///C:/Users/RANDAL~1.WAT/AppData/Loc
al/Temp/tmpb8ffh7z3/extensions/fxdriver@googlecode.com/components/command-proces
sor.js:10092)
    at DelayedCommand.prototype.checkPreconditions_ (file:///C:/Users/RANDAL~1.W
AT/AppData/Local/Temp/tmpb8ffh7z3/extensions/fxdriver@googlecode.com/components/
command-processor.js:12644)
    at DelayedCommand.prototype.executeInternal_/h (file:///C:/Users/RANDAL~1.WA
T/AppData/Local/Temp/tmpb8ffh7z3/extensions/fxdriver@googlecode.com/components/c
ommand-processor.js:12661)
    at DelayedCommand.prototype.executeInternal_ (file:///C:/Users/RANDAL~1.WAT/
AppData/Local/Temp/tmpb8ffh7z3/extensions/fxdriver@googlecode.com/components/com
mand-processor.js:12666)
    at DelayedCommand.prototype.execute/< (file:///C:/Users/RANDAL~1.WAT/AppData
/Local/Temp/tmpb8ffh7z3/extensions/fxdriver@googlecode.com/components/command-pr
ocessor.js:12608)

Open in new window



If I use this binary
binary = FirefoxBinary('C:\\Program Files\\Mozilla Firefox\\firefox.exe')

Open in new window


I get this error
(ff2) C:\Users\Randal J. Watkins>Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "expertsfirefox.py", line 22, in <module>
    driver = webdriver.Firefox(firefox_binary=binary)
  File "C:\Users\RANDAL~1.WAT\Envs\ff2\lib\site-packages\selenium\webdriver\fire
fox\webdriver.py", line 80, in __init__
    self.binary, timeout)
  File "C:\Users\RANDAL~1.WAT\Envs\ff2\lib\site-packages\selenium\webdriver\fire
fox\extension_connection.py", line 52, in __init__
    self.binary.launch_browser(self.profile, timeout=timeout)
  File "C:\Users\RANDAL~1.WAT\Envs\ff2\lib\site-packages\selenium\webdriver\fire
fox\firefox_binary.py", line 68, in launch_browser
    self._wait_until_connectable(timeout=timeout)
  File "C:\Users\RANDAL~1.WAT\Envs\ff2\lib\site-packages\selenium\webdriver\fire
fox\firefox_binary.py", line 99, in _wait_until_connectable
    "The browser appears to have exited "
selenium.common.exceptions.WebDriverException: Message: The browser appears to h
ave exited before we could connect. If you specified a log_file in the FirefoxBi
nary constructor, check it for details.

Open in new window


I am glad to rebuild the 64 bit version if no one knows how to use what I have now.

Thanks,
0
 
LVL 16

Accepted Solution

by:
gelonida earned 400 total points
ID: 41832588
The first error message seems to indicate, that selenium did already start the firefox executable,
that quite some lines were already successfully executed and that it is only the click command that failed.
can you confirm, that you had a firefox window pop up?


I personally worked at lot interactively in order to debug selenium scripts.

what I mean with this is, that I start ipython,
that i import my module by hand.

Let's assume your script is called mytest.py

ipython
import mytest
driver = mytest.init_driver()
driver.get("http://www.google.com")
box = .....
button = .....

Open in new window

then you can check out commands.
In the firefox window you can press F12 to open the debug windows and check for the presence / absence of items in  the DOM.

The error message says
Message: Element is not currently visible and so may not be interacted with
so perhaps you try to click on an object before it is visible?
perhaps you try to click too late, when the objectg is no more visible?
I have the impression, that now your selenium is up and working and that you 'just' have to debug the rest of your script.

you might have to add delays (time.sleep() calls) to your script to add delays.

or you have to add poll functions, that check the presence of certain objects, sleep a little, check again until you'r sure, that the object, that you want to click on does really exist.

So my recommendation:
debug your script semi manually by starting ipython, creating a driver and callingalready preverified functions of your code, and debugging the rest initally by hand and by using firefoxes debug windows to inspect the DOM.
0
 

Author Comment

by:sharingsunshine
ID: 41832612
I never had a window open and I just installed ipython.  So do you put in each line in the script individually?
0
 

Author Comment

by:sharingsunshine
ID: 41832711
It seems there is a window opening up.  I was thinking because of the error messages it must not be working.

I used ipython and %run -d expertsfirefox.py to go into the debug mode.  That will be very handy for my actual script I am using.

David - thanks for pointing out what script to test with and the need to move my python installations to root.

Gelonida - thanks for hanging with me and introducing me to ipython and how it can help me debug the scripts I am working with.
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Find Ransomware Secrets With All-Source Analysis

Ransomware has become a major concern for organizations; its prevalence has grown due to past successes achieved by threat actors. While each ransomware variant is different, we’ve seen some common tactics and trends used among the authors of the malware.

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Go is an acronym of golang, is a programming language developed Google in 2007. Go is a new language that is mostly in the C family, with significant input from Pascal/Modula/Oberon family. Hence Go arisen as low-level language with fast compilation…
When we want to run, execute or repeat a statement multiple times, a loop is necessary. This article covers the two types of loops in Python: the while loop and the for loop.
The viewer will be introduced to the member functions push_back and pop_back of the vector class. The video will teach the difference between the two as well as how to use each one along with its functionality.
The viewer will learn how to successfully create a multiboot device using the SARDU utility on Windows 7. Start the SARDU utility: Change the image directory to wherever you store your ISOs, this will prevent you from having 2 copies of an ISO wit…

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