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MySQL Server 5.5.36 Tuning

Posted on 2016-10-06
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Last Modified: 2016-10-07
I recently inherited a MySQL dbase that is hosting data for an Access Front end using ODBC. In essence the Schema consists of about 8 large tables (6 Million rows +) and an number of secondary tables. The data is stored thus:
Let's say I had a record that held name, City, State, Zip
One would expect a single row with each piece in a column formatted to hold that data, indexed with a unique primary key.

Using that same model, this database assigns an index to the type of data being stored (1=name, 2=City,3=address,4=state) and an index for the root context of the dataset (let's say its the name)
Then stores each piece of data on its own row, referencing the data type index and the root index. Each row has a column to hold different data types (Double, Date/Time, Varchar, etc)
So in order to retrieve the complete record, a query must join the table to itself 4 times on the root context id and then pull each column.

With this schema, anything one does is going to be slow, of course. I have been tasked with tuning the database as best as possible to address the ever increasing lag time on queries.

I have plenty of resources available. CPU usages stays below 25% and memory below 40%. Attcahed is the my.cnf.
I don't even know where to start on this. Discuss and thank you!
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Question by:JP_TechGroup
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by:JP_TechGroup
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Below is the current status:
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GLOBAL VARIABLES:
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collation_connection.................................. latin1_swedish_ci
collation_database.................................... latin1_swedish_ci
collation_server...................................... latin1_swedish_ci
completion_type....................................... NO_CHAIN
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pid_file.............................................. C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\data\cpsosrv-oracle.pid
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port.................................................. 4306
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socket................................................ MySQL
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thread_handling....................................... one-thread-per-connection
thread_stack.......................................... 262144
time_format........................................... %H:%i:%s
time_zone............................................. SYSTEM
timed_mutexes......................................... OFF
tmp_table_size........................................ 214958080
tmpdir................................................ C:/TEMP
transaction_alloc_block_size.......................... 8192
transaction_prealloc_size............................. 4096
tx_isolation.......................................... REPEATABLE-READ
unique_checks......................................... ON
updatable_views_with_limit............................ YES
version............................................... 5.5.36
version_comment....................................... MySQL Community Server (GPL)
version_compile_machine............................... x86
version_compile_os.................................... Win64
wait_timeout.......................................... 28800
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by:gheist
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Easiest option is to get some script like mysqltuner and adjust all wrongs on the spot.
Hint: strawberry perl bundles mysql driver


Looking at your enormous post I see you must enable thread cache (size 4 or number of CPUs) and start logging slow queries. Start with 10s (web feels very sluggish)
Solution is to optimize each and every query that times out. While index speeds up ISAM data retrievel it doubles disk access on insert. If I interpret your post correctly you have nearly no inserts, so feel free to add indices targetting popular slow queries.

(script should be smarter than me reading 20 screens)
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by:Dave Baldwin
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First I'd find out how many different places the current queries exist.  So you would know how many places you would have to update the queries after turning it into a 'normal' database that doesn't require 4 joins to get a single record.
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by:JP_TechGroup
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Thanks for the feedback guys. I have already run a tuning script and did not get much that was helpful.
I have enabled slow query logging, but I am reasonably sure that most queries here are going to be slow!
Re-writing the queries so they will be faster id not really an option. How? My schema structure is what it is. Altering the database and the front end to change that is an enormous re-write of a project I took ownership of yesterday!

I'm screwed, aren't I?
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by:gheist
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slow queries is a programming error. Can you post a query or two with respective DDL?
16GB to hold full database in RAM is not expensive.
You will be wasting lots of CPU
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Dave Baldwin earned 250 total points
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An 'enormous re-write' is the only way to make a big difference in the performance.  I would re-write it to a different set of tables or database so that it could be done without disturbing the current operations.
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by:JP_TechGroup
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Thanks Dave. That was the conclusion I had come to as well. You hope that you don't know what you're talking about and throw it out there...
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by:Dave Baldwin
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You're welcome.  I had a table like that... but at a couple of hundred rows performance wasn't a problem.
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by:gheist
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Lets attack where it hurts most with minimal rewrite of code:
Easiest:
select a.x where a.y in (whatever list) - obviously simplest index on y will make things roll.

If there is an index and full read happens try to sniff around if DB server ever/often crashed. ndexes might be invalidated over time, and reindexing would get them back to work.

Say in the case no query gets prepared you might want to add parentheses (or optimize ANDs and ORs to make less (ISAM) teable reads,)in select where or reorder _ JOIN to save time on query planner/optimizer running for each query. Usually you run EXPLAIN with query and try to re-arrange it to match optimizer result.
Other thing to search in slow query log : select a.* 0> it is wrong, listing fields in query is faster
SELECT queries dont change data, you can play around with them all the time.
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