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# Core Java. What output will be and why ?

Posted on 2016-10-09
Medium Priority
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`````` int x = (int) (char) (byte) -1;
System.out.println(x);
``````

Could you explain step by step what happen here and why ? thanks you in advance !
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Question by:SunnyX
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LVL 32

Expert Comment

ID: 41835947
Conversion one after the other.... I haven't this kind of code before.. :)

-1 --> Byte (1) --> Char (Some Weird Character) -- > Int --- > 65535.

-1 --> Byte -- > -1
-1 --> Char --> 'Ã¯Â¿Â¿'
'Ã¯Â¿Â¿' --> Int - > 65535
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LVL 17

Expert Comment

ID: 41836001
byte in Java is signed 8-bit twos' complement - so the -1 as a byte is eight 1s , ie. 11111111.

the char and int casts are meaningless, so you end up with an int (which in Java is 32-bit signed two's complement, giving the positive decimal result of 65535.

Is that what you meant to ask?
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LVL 36

Accepted Solution

mccarl earned 1600 total points
ID: 41836260
To expand on what Pawan posted and to clear up some inaccuracies in Krakatoa's post..

Firstly, yes, the (int) cast is redundant as Java will apply this when storing the value into the int x. However the (char) cast is VERY meaningful, and changes the result significantly.

So you need to know the Java primitive data types (https://docs.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/java/nutsandbolts/datatypes.html)...

byte is a signed 8-bit number
char is an unsigned 16-bit number (used to store and represent unicode characters)
int is a signed 32-bit number

So the -1 is stored (as krakatoa said) in the byte as binary 11111111. When you cast to the char type, Java needs to expand those 8 bits to 16 bits, and it performs a sign-extension which means that it copies the leftmost bit (1) to the new 8 bits, so the char now has the value of 11111111 11111111. Finally the cast from char to int expands the value from 16 to 32 bits, and since char is unsigned Java just does a 0 expansion setting the new 16 bits to 0's, giving you the value 00000000 00000000 11111111 11111111 which is 65535 as a decimal.

Had you NOT done the (char) cast in between, you are asking Java to cast directly from byte to int, which in this case means casting a signed 8-bit to a signed 32-bit value. And because you are only dealing in signed values Java uses the sign-extension method to add the extra 24 bits, so from 11111111 Java takes the leftmost bit (1) and copies it to all 24 of the new bits, giving you 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 or a value of -1 as an int.
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LVL 17

Expert Comment

ID: 41836479
(char)

quite right - I overlooked the char cast as material like that.
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LVL 32

Assisted Solution

Pawan Kumar earned 400 total points
ID: 41856675
@Author - A feedback will be highly appreciated !
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Author Closing Comment

ID: 41856798
Thx everybody !
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