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calendar source - options..

1)
other than sun & moon (lunar) as reference sources, what are other sources on which calendars have been made throughout the world in history?
(is English calendar based on sun rotation?)

2)
is lunar calendar always precisely certain number of days that pertain to a year..

**we know the English calendar is not the same # of days in a year always (leap year etc)~

thanks.
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25112
Asked:
25112
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8 Solutions
 
Thibault St john Cholmondeley-ffeatherstonehaugh the 2ndCommented:
They must have all originated to mark and to anticipate the seasons.  It would have been very important to know when to plant, when to expect to harvest, and when to prepare for cold winter or hot dry summer.
So the solar cycle would be the basis of almost all 'natural' calendars.
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crystal (strive4peace) - Microsoft MVP, AccessRemote Training and ProgrammingCommented:
There used to be 10 months in the calendar year but Julius Caesar and then his nephew, Augustus, added months (July and August).

http://www.infoplease.com/spot/history-of-august.html
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dhsindyRetired considering supplemental income.Commented:
I think every religion has their own calendar to keep track of their events.
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d-glitchCommented:
If you watch the sun, you can count days.  If you watch the moon, you can count months.

To get at the seasons, you have to monitor the rotation of the earth around the sun.  There are several ways to get at this:
  • You can measure the time between sunrise and sunset (but you need a clock).  
  • You can look at the position of the sun at sunrise, sunset, or solar noon.   You can do this with a shadow stick and a bunch of pegs.
  • Or you can use the Zodiac and keep track of the first stars that rise every evening.
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d-glitchCommented:
Yes the Gregorian Calendar which was introduced in 1582.  It is definitely a solar calendar, with a leap year approx every four years to keep the seasons from straying.
     https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregorian_calendar

England (and the American colonies) didn't get around to adopting it until 1752, when they had drifted eleven days behind.
     http://libguides.ctstatelibrary.org/hg/colonialresearch/calendar
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25112Author Commented:
thanks for the answers.

so would be it fair to say there are only two options to mark or calculation of seasons and times - that is..
sun & moon?
regardless of cultures or ethnic calendars

>>So the solar cycle would be the basis of almost all 'natural' calendars.
what would be, if any, example of 'unnatural' calendar?

>>Julius Caesar and then his nephew, Augustus, added months (July and August).
before this, did they still have 12 month to a year?

>>track of the first stars that rise every evening.
the common man cant track this easily, can he?
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crystal (strive4peace) - Microsoft MVP, AccessRemote Training and ProgrammingCommented:
before that, I think there were 10, not 12
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Thibault St john Cholmondeley-ffeatherstonehaugh the 2ndCommented:
By natural I mean calendars derived from nature. Unnatural would be something contrived to make the maths easier, perhaps a ten days in a week and ten weeks in a year. You would have to change the length of a day and ignore light and dark. Could possibly be of use if people travelled far and often, jet lag wouldn't bother them as they would be used to odd day and night periods. Or if anyone lived off this planet or permanently underground. There's probably not much chance of any of those happening, but it would be a calendar based on human behaviour and not on natural events, therefore 'not natural' (I prefer that to unnatural).
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d-glitchCommented:
You could use first frost or last snow on the ground as natural seasonal markers.  Additional relevant phenomena are bird and fish migrations, local plants sprouting, blossoming or dying, the number and color of the leaves on the trees, and the amount of snow cap on a nearby mountain.

The moon is actually worthless as a seasonal marker.

The zodiac goes back at least 2500 years to the Babylonians.  Certainly the commonest of men could and would track it if they had any need or reason to do so.  
It is probably easier to track 12 constellations than to count 365 days.  And it is more accurate over the long term.
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25112Author Commented:
thank you..
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