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How to code SharePoint 2013 online

I have been reading all over the internet trying to find out how to code SharePoint 2013 online.  I wanted to be able to make Visual Web Parts but after going down that road, I now read that Microsoft shut off Sandboxed Solutions ?  Can anyone give me a clear explanation of how to code C# in SharePoint 2013 online ?

With C# I can do anything, connect to azure databases, sharepoint lists, take over the DOM and make my own pages etc etc etc.  Is there still a way to do all the things I could do with C#.  If  C# is indeed no longer allowed, what do you use ?
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Demosthenes
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Demosthenes
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Jamie McAllister MVPArchitectCommented:
So, you will never write and deploy compiled C# code to SharePoint Online. Ever!

SharePoint Online is a massive solution where many customers are sharing SharePoint tenants on the same virtual servers as other customers. Full trust or even sandboxed code would jeopordize the stability of that.

So, our custom solutions will always be written in client side code (e.g. javascript) or perhaps compiled code on our own or an Azure server.

The App Model is the first attempt at this (I don't particularly like or recommend it, but that's another story).

Much more promising is the new SharePoint Framework, where webparts can be written as client side code. Very slick, very clever.

Get familiar with the Office Patterns and Practices site. Many working code samples, and showing exactly how it should be done.

http://dev.office.com/pnp
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DemosthenesAuthor Commented:
So, you will never write and deploy compiled C# code to SharePoint Online. Ever!

Wow.  Ok, finally a clear answer !  Thank you much.
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Jamie McAllister MVPArchitectCommented:
To be fair I mostly work with SharePoint on-premises, but even there I avoid deploying code to SharePoint itself whenever possible. (As soon as I saw what Microsoft were aiming at with SharePoint 2013 and the App Model I saw where future investment from MS was going to go)

I write solutions in C# and even powershell. These tend to use the Client Object Model to call into SharePoint to retrieve or manipulate data. They're deployed to other servers in my org, and often use least privileged service accounts to operate. (Quite often batch processing due to nature of the business).

I also write javascript that I deploy to SharePoint (store in libraries and on pages). This javascript often also uses the Client Object Model to retrieve or manipulate data.

Beyond this I also use K2 Blackpearl, which gives me powerful electronic form and workflow capabilities I couldn't get from native SharePoint. (Deployed to a K2 server, once again not touching the SharePoint servers themselves).

I partially documented my ethos in this blog post in 2013; http://the-north.com/sharepoint/post/Alternatives-to-SharePoint-Timer-Jobs
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Walter CurtisSharePoint AEDCommented:
Great info Jamie, thanks...
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