how awk substr works and also how index works in inside substr?

Hi Team,

i am little bit confused in in understanding the awk with substring function and also with index  which used in inside substring as below. Could anyone clearly explain me please? little bit confused :( :(

emerg1@HKLVADEDM10 ~/.ansible $ history | tail
 1952  2016-10-21 14:21:14 cat ../user_man/roles/usercreate/tasks/main.yml
 1953  2016-10-21 14:22:10 ls -lrt
 1954  2016-10-21 14:22:19 cat screenlog.1
 1955  2016-10-21 14:22:32 cd .ansible/
 1956  2016-10-21 14:22:33 ls -rlt
 1957  2016-10-21 14:22:39 cat user_add.yaml
 1958  2016-10-21 14:23:07 history | grep -i ansible | awk '{print sustr($0,index($0,$4))}'
 1959  2016-10-21 14:23:07 history | grep -i ansible | awk '{print sustr($0,index($0,$4))}'
 1960  2016-10-21 14:23:35 history | grep -i ansible | awk '{print substr($0,index($0,$4))}'
 1961  2016-10-21 14:25:11 history | tail

emerg1@HKLVADEDM10 ~/.ansible $  history | tail | awk '{print substr($0,index($0,$4))}'
ls -lrt
cat screenlog.1
cd .ansible/
ls -rlt
cat user_add.yaml
history | grep -i ansible | awk '{print sustr($0,index($0,$4))}'
history | grep -i ansible | awk '{print sustr($0,index($0,$4))}'
history | grep -i ansible | awk '{print substr($0,index($0,$4))}'
id gnanam
history | tail
emerg1@HKLVADEDM10 ~/.ansible $
BharathKumarRaju DasaraRajuDevops EngineerAsked:
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Phil PhillipsConnect With a Mentor Director of DevOps & Quality AssuranceCommented:
substr returns a piece of a string. First argument is the string, and the second is the character position to start at. There is also a third optional argument of how many characters to return.

Example: substr("experts", 3) returns "perts"

Example: substr("experts", 3, 2) returns "pe"

Index returns the character position within a string. When you put substr and index together, you can get the piece of a string starting with the first occurrence of another string. In your example above, it's returning the 4th field and everything after.
arnoldConnect With a Mentor Commented:
Awk by default splits the line based on white space. The individual entries start from 1
$0 means/represents the entire line
$4 is the forth element

As Phil covered, the result of your awk expression is to strip out all data prior to the fourth element while printing out the rest of the line from that point.
skullnobrainsConnect With a Mentor Commented:
yep. the whole command prints out all the commands that were run remotely using ansible ( assuming no options were given to ansible or you'd get some gibberish at the beginning of the lines ) whatever the remote host ( and possibly a few other commands containing the string 'ansible' )
BharathKumarRaju DasaraRajuDevops EngineerAuthor Commented:
Thank you for your help
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