Multilanguage Database Design in MySQL

Hi to all,

I am new with PHP language and trying to translate a content of database column to another column in different languages.  I found this site below, seems very useful:


I was practicing the easiest approach first approach 1. Column Approach.   as instructed I created the Database andadded PHP file as shown below:

CREATE TABLE app_product (
  `id` int(10) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `date_created` datetime NOT NULL,
  `price` decimal(10,2) unsigned NOT NULL DEFAULT '0.00',
  `title_en` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
  `title_es` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
  `title_fr` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
);

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<?php
// Retrieve titles for all languages
$sql = "SELECT * FROM `app_product` WHERE 1";
if($result = mysqli_query($link, $sql)){
    if($row = mysqli_fetch_assoc($result)){
        echo "English: ".$row["title_en"]."<br>";
        echo "Spanish: ".$row["title_es"]."<br>";
        echo "French: ".$row["title_fr"]."<br>";
    }
}

// Retrieve appropriate title according to the chosen language in the system
$sql = "SELECT `title_".$_SESSION['current_language']."` as `title`
        FROM `app_product`";
if($result = mysqli_query($link, $sql)){
    if($row = mysqli_fetch_assoc($result)){
        echo "Current Language: ".$row["title"];

    }
}
?>

The Bold text is where I am stuck.  I don't understand it and don't know how to create PHP code or drop down menu or...etc to select a language I want so I can fetch the data?

thanks in advance.
Rawand AminAsked:
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Julian HansenConnect With a Mentor Commented:
Let's break the statement down
$sql = "SELECT `title_".$_SESSION['current_language']."` as `title`

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$_SESSION is a global array that stores session data for a particular visitor. You would populate this with information based on user interaction. For instance if they perform a login to your site you might put a user ID in there - in you case if they click on a link to say what language they prefer you might store that in the session.

You can read more about PHP sessions here

If you use sessions then every page on which you need to get / set SESSION data must have the following at the top.
session_start()

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You can then set a SESSION variable
$_SESSION['current_language'] = 'en';

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Or retrieve it
$currentlanguage = isset($_SESSION['current_language']) ? $_SESSION['current_language']: $default_language;

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The first line of the query concatentating whatever is in the $_SESSION['current_language'] to the string 'title_'
If you look at your DB definition you have three columns.
title_en
title_es
title_fr

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Based on this we expect that $_SESSION['current_language'] contains the strins 'en','es' or 'fr' - by concatenating the strings we create a column name.
FROM `app_product`";

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Just means from the app_product table.

The next 3 lines are setting up and running the SQL query and fetching the results.

Post back if you need more than the above.
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Ray PaseurCommented:
We have an article here at E-E that shows the general design pattern for a multi-lingual web site.  Please read it over and post back if you still have specific questions.
https://www.experts-exchange.com/articles/8910/A-Polyglot-Web-Site-in-PHP.html
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Ray PaseurCommented:
I should probably also share these links, too.

If you're new to PHP:
https://www.experts-exchange.com/articles/11769/And-by-the-way-I-am-New-to-PHP.html

How the PHP session works:
https://www.experts-exchange.com/articles/11909/PHP-Sessions-Simpler-Than-You-May-Think.html

And to be fair, a multi-language web site is a fairly advanced topic.  If you find yourself stuck, you may want to consider creating a project in Gigs.

I would be disinclined to store all of the translations in a single database; a simpler design would store the language-specific information in separate language-specific databases.  Each of these databases would be strictly parallel to the other databases, using identical table and column names.  The same PHP code set could serve any language by just connecting to the correct database.  A little more discussion and some code samples can be found in the Polyglot article.
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Rawand AminAuthor Commented:
Thanks you so much, great detail
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Julian HansenCommented:
You are welcome.
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