What are tunneling techniqiues to transfer malicious data or exfiltrate data called?

Hi,

I am currently researching techniques used to exfiltrate data, such as ICMP tunneling, SSH tunneling and DNS tunneling. I have come across the word "covert channels" but am not sure if this refers to the tunneling techniques I have mentioned. Can someone explain what the exfiltration techniques through tunneling are called? i am asking to try narrow down my research keywords. Not sure if they fall under covert channels.

Thanks in advance for your assistance
Robert MuscatAsked:
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Adam BrownSr Solutions ArchitectCommented:
Exfiltration of data is usually done by opening an anonymous, unlogged VPN connection. ICMP, SSH, and DNS tunneling are VPN techniques that hide themselves in common protocols that network monitoring systems may overlook. Covert Channel is one term used to describe these tunneling techniques because they are hidden. Covert Channels are used for all kinds of things in Malware, like communication to C&C servers/networks, exfiltration, and infiltration or malware dropping.

The trick here is that ICMP, SSH, and DNS tunneling are techniques that actively hide or obfuscate the traffic by using traffic datagrams that are not commonly used for transferring data.
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Robert MuscatAuthor Commented:
Excellent confirmation of what I requested.
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