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Cannot do Windows Update on any of my Windows Server 2016 machines

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Last Modified: 2017-11-06
I have three Windows Server 2016 virtual machines.  None of them are able to do Windows Update.  They find a list of items to download, but they're just stuck on 'Downloading update 0%'.  It can't be a corruption of repository or catalog because I've just built a VM from stratch and tried it and I get the same thing.  I've tried re-downloading the ISO from MVLS too, in case the ISO was corrupt.

All of our 2008 R2 machines connect to Windows Update no problem - these are in the same subnet, and go through the same proxy server.  Besides, the firewall/proxy reports HTTP 200 when Windows Update is attempted, so the proxy isn't doing anything to the traffic.

Looking at my WindowsUpdate.log file, I see these lines many times in a loop...

2017/11/06 11:55:43.8312332 588   4116  DownloadManager BITS job initialized: JobId = {E949FC9B-4BC2-443E-858F-8F693CE11E0B}
2017/11/06 11:55:43.8436054 588   4116  DownloadManager Downloading from http://download.windowsupdate.com/c/msdownload/update/software/defu/2017/09/nis_engine_1af0e4b80bf4028f8dac56ebf186b392e4e72486.exe to C:\Windows\SoftwareDistribution\Download\f71ddf93ec2d087c819cf75c55ddfda2\1af0e4b80bf4028f8dac56ebf186b392e4e72486 (full file)
2017/11/06 11:55:43.8452605 588   4116  DownloadManager New download job {E949FC9B-4BC2-443E-858F-8F693CE11E0B} for UpdateId F608EDA4-2E84-433A-A8C9-8117411F91A8.200
2017/11/06 11:55:43.8545291 588   4116  DownloadManager Download job E949FC9B-4BC2-443E-858F-8F693CE11E0B resumed.
2017/11/06 11:55:43.8734449 588   4116  DownloadManager Failed to connect to the DO service; (hr = 80040154)
2017/11/06 11:55:43.8734462 588   4116  DownloadManager GetDOManager() failed, hr=80246008, hrExtended=80040154
2017/11/06 11:55:43.8734472 588   4116  DownloadManager Failed creating DO job with hr 80246008
2017/11/06 11:55:43.8772521 588   4116  DownloadManager DO download failed with error 80246008[Extended: 80040154], falling back to BITS and retrying with new Download Job.

We have no WSUS server, and I've also tried setting the REG_DWORD UseWUServer=0 but to no avail.

For one of the servers, I downloaded the latest Cumulative Update from the Microsoft Catalog, but even after installing that, it's still not able to download any of the other update with Windows Updates.

I've tried it whilst logging in as a local user and as a domain user.  I've tried it a domain-joined machine and with non domain-joined.

Any ideas?
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