SAML, SOAP and API's... the big picture?

I need a better understanding of the relationship between SAML and API integrations.

Our company has two major needs :

(1) single sign-on (user 'Bob' will login into 'ACME.com' and then click a link to automatically enter our site without login again)
(2) transfer of information - one of our tools will send an XML string to company X, they will run a program and return an XML string to us with additional information.   Currently this is done through a web service (API).   Not sure how to better secure this? Does SAML come into play here?

I see how SAML will be used for (1) the single sign-on.   But is SAML used for, or needed for an API when passing XML strings?   We currently use SOAP or just XML.  

Please let me understand how SAML, SOAP and web services all play together.
If I were to approach a new company with the idea of creating a web service to communicate, would they ask me to use SAML?
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gdemariaAsked:
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gr8gonzoConsultantCommented:
The general idea is that you usually want your API requests to have some kind of authentication so that your API cannot be abused by just anyone who knows it's there.

So you can send along credentials (username / password) in your SOAP request but that means hardcoding those credentials somewhere and maintaining them. Plus, if the credentials leak somehow, then anyone who knows them can make calls to the API using them.

SAML improves upon this by allowing the script to pass in a valid session token for authentication. The token can be acquired in various ways - it's sort of up to you to decide that part. One indirect example is passing the token from a regular user session - the user logs into some system using SAML and that system issues them a session ID. Then the session ID is passed into the code that is making the requests to the API. So the code isn't using a fixed set of credentials anymore but rather a generated token (session ID) that is tied to an active, logged-in user.

Another more direct example would be having the script contact the idp directly, get an assertion for the API, then the API returns a session token that can be used for further calls.
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gdemariaAuthor Commented:
Thank you!
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