i wanted to know following:

1) how a user in domain joined workstation authenticates  

like LDAP protocol to contact DC how it works and where DNS comes in picture , also how user authenticates and his login works

2) in normal situation when we browse internet from OUR PC, does it contacts root hints  and what is root zone ? does DC has root hints file?

3) if a website is not working, what all we need to check on IIS part?
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Cliff GaliherCommented:
1) Active Directory is an LDAP database, but LDAP isn't inherently an authentication mechanism. Windows uses DNS to find a a suitable domain controller then uses kerberos to request a ticket.

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Cliff GaliherCommented:
2) No PCs talk to their defined DNS servers. DNS servers will do any recursive queries needed if configured, and that could mean root hints or predefined forwarders. Clients never do recursive queries themselves.
Cliff GaliherCommented:
3) too broad. Can't answer.
pramod1Author Commented:
Thanks i meant 401 unknown error if one open web site
Cliff GaliherCommented:
You need to look at logs. One million and one things can cause that.
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