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Local Free Oracle Database (non cloud) how to create and connect after installation

Trying to install a non-cloud database (local). Can I use Oracle 12c to create a local database only?
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iBinc
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iBinc
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Mark GeerlingsDatabase AdministratorCommented:
Yes, assuming that you downloaded a copy of the Oracle database software for your O/S.  Can you tell us what you downloaded and which O/S you have?
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iBincAuthor Commented:
My laptop: Windows 10 64 bit
Oracle: installed winx64_12201_database
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Mark GeerlingsDatabase AdministratorCommented:
That should work.  The easiest way to create an Oracle database is usually by running the DBCA (DataBase Creation Assistant).  This is a GUI tool that will guide you through the steps of creating an Oracle database.  If you look in your Start Menu, for the Oracle programs you installed, you should see DBCA as one of them
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iBincAuthor Commented:
Do you mean Database Configuration Assistant?

Trying to do that and it appears stuck at "Copying database files" In Progress
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Mark GeerlingsDatabase AdministratorCommented:
Yes, that is likely the correct name.  And it does take some time (minutes) for that step.  It may not be "stuck", just busy.  I haven't run an Oracle database on a Windows laptop or desktop for some years.  When I did that in the past, the database always seemed somewhat slow compared to Oracle databases on servers with lots of RAM, multiple CPUs and multiple disk drives (or a fast NAS or SAN) with lots of write cache.
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iBincAuthor Commented:
Ok, so I created the database... FRED2
Now how do I connect to it in Oracle SQL Developer? What username/password, SID?
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Geert GOracle dbaCommented:
a free version is the oracle XE version, but there is no 12 edition
https://oracle-base.com/blog/2016/01/07/oracle-xe-12c/

if you installed any other version, you'll need to get a license

look on this page if you want the 11g XE edition
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/enterprise-edition/downloads/index.html

you can use any database for self-learning ... without a license for yourself
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Mark GeerlingsDatabase AdministratorCommented:
DBCA should have prompted you to provide passwords for SYS and SYSTEM (at least) when it created the database.  You can use either of those usernames with whatever password you provided.  DBCA also likely suggested a default SID value.  If you didn't notice the SID, you can look in your $ORACLE_HOME\network\admin directory for the two configuration files there that should contain your SID.  These two files are: listener.ora and tnsnames.ora.  Those are both plain-text files that you can open with Notepad or Wordpad.
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iBincAuthor Commented:
Geert maybe that is why the 12c install did not work right. I was able initially to connect with developer and create a user but could not create a new database that was accessible after that. Possibly something else was wrong. I uninstalled and will install the free version.
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iBincAuthor Commented:
Looks like 12c is a free download. Not sure what went wrong. https://www.oracle.com/downloads/index.html
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Mark GeerlingsDatabase AdministratorCommented:
"I was able initially to connect with developer and create a user but could not create a new database."
What?

If you were able to connect, and create a user, the database had to be there.  There was no need to create another database then.  (Oracle12 does introduce the optional concept of multiple, pluggable (detachable) databases inside a container database, but I'm assuming you weren't talking about creating a new pluggable database inside an existing Oracle12 container database.)

Or, do you have SQL Server experience and you use the word "database" with the meaning it has in SQL Server (where a "database" is just one part of the complete system)?  In Oracle, the "database" is the system!  In Oracle you cannot log in without a database.  And you certainly cannot create a user without a database!
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iBincAuthor Commented:
Yes, I am from sql server but I assumed you could create multiple databases in oracle and the option is there to do that.
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slightwv (䄆 Netminder) Commented:
>>Looks like 12c is a free download. Not sure what went wrong.

There is a huge difference between free to download and install and free to use and operate.

>>Yes, I am from sql server but I assumed you could create multiple databases

Don't try to compare the two.  There are large differences in the architecture.

I would suggest you start by reviewing the Concepts guide:
https://docs.oracle.com/en/database/oracle/oracle-database/12.2/cncpt/index.html
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iBincAuthor Commented:
Since my intention obviously is not to become an oracle dba or expert, I'm more interested in learning the basics in order to create structures for an application, I'm here to get the short answer on how it works, not a lecture on what I don't know and book reference.
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slightwv (䄆 Netminder) Commented:
It wasn't meant to be a lecture and I apologize if it came across that way.  Learning the basics on how Oracle works will directly lead to best answers to your questions.

There are things done in SQL Server that are not the correct way to do things in Oracle and trying will cause more work and poor performance.
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iBincAuthor Commented:
No I appreciate what you are telling me. I just don't have time to read a book. The data application is my focus on a tight schedule.
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iBincAuthor Commented:
I'm going to install the xe version and do a little reading on oracle databases and users.
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slightwv (䄆 Netminder) Commented:
Here is the 100,000 foot view and bare basics:
Oracle Instance:  The server processes and memory structure
Oracle Database:  The files on disk
Oracle User: created to allow connections to the database
Oracle Schema:  basically a user that owns objects like tables/procedures/etc.

Oracle gives you two users you need to know about from the start:  SYS and SYSTEM.

SYS owns the data dictionary and ALL database objects.  SYSTEM is the initial DBA.

NEVER, I repeat NEVER create objects while logged in as the SYS or SYSTEM users.

First thing you do after creating a new database and instance is to create a user specific for your objects.
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iBincAuthor Commented:
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johnsoneSenior Oracle DBACommented:
Oracle doesn't really differentiate between a SCHEMA and a USER.  In Oracle terms, SCHEMA is really just a user that owns OBJECTS.  Other database systems differentiate between them and they are different objects in the database, but in Oracle they really aren't.  If you really use the CREATE SCHEMA syntax in Oracle, it is really nothing more than a CREATE USER followed by a bunch of object CREATE statements.  Personally, I find the CREATE SCHEMA harder to find syntax errors with, I use multiple statements when building something that large.  Easier to find errors.
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Mark GeerlingsDatabase AdministratorCommented:
"I assumed you could create multiple databases in Oracle."
 Yes, in Oracle12 it is possible to create multiple (pluggable) databases inside a single container (top-level) database.

Is it a good idea in Oracle12 to create multiple (pluggable) databases?   That depends on your needs.
Is it necessary in Oracle12 to create multiple (pluggable) databases?  Certainly not.

Besides the difference between what the word "database" means in SQL Server compared to what that word means in Oracle, there are many other differences between these two systems.  One of the most common is whether "temp" tables are needed (or even helpful) or not.  In Oracle, that is very rarely.  And, if they are helpful in Oracle, they should *NOT* be created dynamically in stored procedures.  Trying to force Oracle to do things as they are done in SQL Server is certainly not a good idea.
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Geert GOracle dbaCommented:
locks ... that's really different
and the undo

i encounter devs from the sql server world regularly struggling with those concepts in oracle
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