Internet through Cable line or Satellite

Internet through Cable line or Satellite

I have read online that there are fiber cables ran through the Oceans to reach other continents in order to provide internet connection.
I have also read that internet connection is provided through Satellites somewhere in the Orbit, and there is no need to run cables from one end of the globe to another.

I am not sure which approach is used to have people in the world connect to Internet.

Any Expert to shade some lights on this ?

Thanks
jskfanAsked:
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Dave BaldwinFixer of ProblemsCommented:
There is really very little comparison.  Connection speed on all the satellite services is pretty slow and limited bandwidth.  Fiber is Very fast and very high bandwidth.  You would have to cover the sky with satellites to even come close to the capabilities of fiber.
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JohnBusiness Consultant (Owner)Commented:
I agree with the above.  Local Cell Tower service can be very fast but that is not Satellite and local towers may have a fiber connection at some point.

True Satellite Internet suffers from latency (because of distance) which makes it slow.
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fred hakimRetired ITCommented:
I have to agree, that satellite bandwidths are simply too limited for any sort of global traffic.  Any technology to improve that to get close to meeting that sort of demand either does not exist today or is simply too expensive to pursue given the state cost of global fiber.

There are fiber cables running between and across continents,  They come up out of the ground and  water in various major hub locations.  Hawaii  has a big one.   Here is a map of the underwater stuff...

See:  https://www.submarinecablemap.com/

That's just what is currently installed.  See this article about 10 mega undersea cables under construction..

See:  https://data-economy.com/10-mega-undersea-cables-construction/
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jskfanAuthor Commented:
But why they run cables across continents ?
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JohnBusiness Consultant (Owner)Commented:
The cost of running fiber is less expensive than high speed cell towers, and done right, lower maintenance for fiber than cell tower maintenance.

That may change, but that the way it is today.
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Dave BaldwinFixer of ProblemsCommented:
Connections on land used to be provided with microwave towers.  But microwave connections are also limited in bandwidth and range and are relatively expensive to maintain compared to fiber.  They are also subject to interference from other signals and aircraft flying thru the transmission path.  The phone companies have been using fiber for at least 20 years now.

Radio and wireless communications are good for relatively short mobile paths like cell phone and police and aircraft radios.  It is cheaper to connect to anything that is not mobile by using fiber.  It's also much faster.

Note that cable companies like Comcast are converting most of their networks, even local ones, over to fiber to get both lower cost and much higher speed.  Makes sense since TV is digital now.
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fred hakimRetired ITCommented:
The bottom line is Fiber is a lot more reliable,  a lot cheaper and a whole lot faster than the other options available today for bulk ISP traffic.  

Its also one of the best solutions for some private data center reliability strategies.   Before I retired, we ran fiber between primary and backup geographically distributed data centers.   We offered our customers multiple SLA options -- some of which included strategies that required extremely high bandwidth and reliability between two or more data centers.  

Even to your home, fiber is becoming more prolific -- as bandwidth requirements are ever increasing for home entertainment.
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jskfanAuthor Commented:
OK if I understand how Internet works in summary..

**Companies with Websites to provisions to their Customers, Connect to their local  Internet Providers.
** Internet Providers Connect to Hubs, for instance in USA , there will be 10 Hubs.
** USA Hubs then run Cables to other Hubs in other Countries or Continents.
**For local Customers, I believe they connect straight to Internet Providers , instead of the Hubs.

That's for Cable

For Satellites connections is the same, the difference is that the Hubs  have mediums that connect them to  Satellites ..

Is that Correct ?
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JohnBusiness Consultant (Owner)Commented:
The connection is correct but that does not solve the Satellite latency issue.
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Dave BaldwinFixer of ProblemsCommented:
The internet stopped working that way in 1995.  After that, the big companies had to make agreements with other providers and phone companies for direct connections to the other company's network.  Residential customers are about the only ones that connect to a local ISP.  A typical data center where web servers are kept connects to 10 or more fiber and telephone companies.  So a diagram of the internet connections looks like a big spider's web on top of other spider webs.
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jskfanAuthor Commented:
Thank you Guys!
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JohnBusiness Consultant (Owner)Commented:
You are very welcome and I was happy to help
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