Bitwise arithmetic. What's different between x <<= y and x << y ?

C# Bitwise arithmetic. What's different between  x <<= y and x << y ?

x <<= y  is evaluated as x = x << y (msdn)


x = 69
y = 4

1) z = x << y      //  z = 1104

2) x <<= y         // x = 80

Why z != x ?
Somebody explain me please...
Dmitriy GalankinDeveloperAsked:
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Michael PfisterCommented:
Can't confirm thqt. In my test both functions return 1104, expample 1 in z, example 2 in x.
What variable type are x,y and z? In my test I've used int.
Dmitriy GalankinDeveloperAuthor Commented:
Type of variables:
x is byte
y is int
z is short
Dmitriy GalankinDeveloperAuthor Commented:
well... i need to get a ip header length from IPHeader
first byte oh header consist from version and header length
4 bits for version
4 bits for header length

byte versionAndIHL = 69
short version = (short)(versionAndIHL >> 4)   // return 4 - it's ok
short IHL = (short)(versionAndIHL << 4) // return 1104, but must be 20 (20 is length of ip header)
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Michael PfisterCommented:
Use the bitwise "and" operator:
IHL =  (versionAndIHL & 0xF)  * 4;


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x = 69 means x = 64 + 4 + 1 = 2^6 + 2^2 + 2^0

hence the bit 6 and bit 2 and bit are 1 and all other bits are 0.

if you shift all bits 4 to the left the bit 6 was not move to bit 10 as a byte only has 8 bits. so you get bit 6 set to 1 and bit 4 set to 1 what is 64 + 16 == 80

4 bits for header length

I made a mistake. 1010 is 8 + 2 what is 10.

4 bits for the length would mean that the length has a range of 0 to 15.

so it couldn't be 20 what means that header length must be more than 4 bits.

i still would think that the header is big-endian what means that the order of the bits goes from left to right.

we should have at least a 16 bit integer (a short) to convert from network order (big-endian) to to host order (little-endian).

unsigned short usheaderBE = ...;    // extract a 16-bit integer from header
unsigned short usheaderLE = ntohs(usheaderBE);
byte IHL = usheaderLE & 0xFF;   // now extract lower 8 bits

can you post the structure definition that defines the header?

i found a comment in a source code that explains why the header length is times 4 of the half-byte value.

 * The IP header size, in bytes, is the value of the IP header length,
 * as extracted from the "ip_vhl" field of "struct sniff_ip" with
 * the "IP_HL()" macro, times 4 ("times 4" because it's in units of
 * 4-byte words
).  If that value is less than 20 - i.e., if the value
 * extracted with "IP_HL()" is less than 5 - you have a malformed
 * IP datagram.

that means the IHL counts the length in 32-bit (4-byte) integers.

The solution was to extract the byte from header and multiply it with 4 as the length stored in the byte counts 32-bit integers.

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