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How does reticle point at the target ?

In a purely mechanical and optical scope(no electronics, no software), how does reticle or crosshair point directly at the target?

What is the mechanism that enables reticle to aim at the target?
* Physics Optics* PhysicsMiscellaneous

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8/22/2022 - Mon
David Johnson, CD

the recticle will move up or down or left to right depending upon the distance (using click stops) by experience you know at a specific range to target you have to adjust the elevation up or down x # of clicks from the calibrated setting.  Then again by constant testing you can adjust the windage for the wind velocity and direction.. one click could be one inch change at 200 yards and 1 foot at 1000 yards.  One may not even change the scope settings but instead use the mill markers inside of the scope (one mill up, two mills right and use that as that as the aiming point  instead of the center of the recticle.  

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Dr. Klahn

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>> "calibrated setting"
What is calibrated setting?  Is it when scope is turned ON will objective lens covered?  If yes, what is calibrated?

>> "The reticle doesn't "point" anywhere.  It is only half of the system"
I don't understand this statement.  Please explain.

>> "exit lens"
Is that ocular lens or objective lens ?

>> "optical axis"
What is optical axis?
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Nice explanations.  

Expert provided key information about reticle.
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