hopefully a simple hash error

i'm new to perl so this is hopefully simple.  i keep getting the following error:

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syntax error at /home/dwcronin/programs/ex4_1 line 7, near "$family_name{"
Execution of /home/dwcronin/programs/ex4_1 aborted due to compilation errors.
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specifically. i'm trying to learn hashes by following the o'reilly book 'learning perl" by randal schwartz.
dwcroninAsked:
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dwcroninAuthor Commented:
here is the code that would not upload:
#!/usr/bin/perl;                                           # ex5_1
######################################################################################
use warnings;
use strict;
use 5.010;

my $family_name{"fred"} = "flintstone";

~                                                                                                                                                                        
~                                                                                                                                                                        
~                                                                                                                                                                        
~                                                                                                                                                                        
~                                                                                                                                                                        
~
kaufmed   (⌐■_■)Shot Through the Heart, and You're to Blame, You Give vars a Bad NameCommented:
Create the hash first:

use warnings;
use strict;
use 5.010;

my %family_name;

$family_name{"fred"} = "flintstone";

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kaufmed   (⌐■_■)Shot Through the Heart, and You're to Blame, You Give vars a Bad NameCommented:
Alternatively, you can initialize the variable inline:

use warnings;
use strict;
use 5.010;

my %family_name = ("fred", "flintstone");

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Perl

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