physical connection error rate, meaning.

I am trying to understand this sentence: “The size of data units may be limited by the physical connection error rate. ” From “Network Maintenance and Troubleshooting Guide: Field-Tested Solutions for Everyday Problems.” The author was discussing the data link layer.
MAsked:
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Dr. KlahnPrincipal Software EngineerCommented:
Noise on the line affects how big a packet can be sent without requiring error correction to be sent along with it.

If there is no noise, a packet infinitely long can be sent.

If there is all noise and no signal, a packet 0 bytes long can be sent.

If there is an impulse noise every 11 bit times, the maximum length packet that can be sent is 10 bits long.

If there is random noise, how long a packet can be sent is a crapshoot and statistical analysis is required to figure out how long a packet can be sent "safely", viz. with a certain probability of reception.  With random noise level x, it might be possible to send 68-bit packets with 95% reliability but 1500-bit packets with only 3% reliability.

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MAuthor Commented:
Thank you Dr. Klahn.
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