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exchange 2013, exchange 2016, office 365

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what is the difference in mail flow between exchange 2013 and exchange 2016 and exchange online

what are the tools used for troubleshooting exchange issues

is there any article which mentions about some important exchange issues faced on exchange 2013, 2016 or office 365

what is the difference between rpc over https and mapi over http
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Saif ShaikhServer engineer
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Commented:

difference in mail flow between exchange 2013 and exchange 2016 and exchange online.


Not much difference.


what are the tools used for troubleshooting exchange issues.


What type of troubleshooting you need.


I s there any article which mentions about some important exchange issues faced on exchange 2013, 2016 or office 365


There are many. It depends on what type of issues you come across.


what is the difference between rpc over https and mapi over http


RPC over HTTP wrapped its MAPI payload within both RPC and HTTP for transport over the network. MAPI over HTTP just requires an HTTP wrapper. ... MAPI over HTTP uses two TCP connections -- one long-term connection and one short-term connection -- for more efficient network use and improved email performance.



MAPI over HTTP      

        When the Exchange Server transport service is configured in Microsoft Outlook, Outlook uses the MAPI to communicate with the Exchange Information Store service. These MAPI calls are all RPC-based. Although RPC calls work well in a LAN or WAN environment, they are generally discouraged for use over the Internet because of firewall and other security concerns. With earlier versions of Exchange, external Outlook users who wanted MAPI access to Exchange had to first establish VPN connections to their organization's private network.

RPC over HTTP

      RPC over HTTP enables client programs to use the Internet to run procedures that are provided by server programs on distant networks. RPC over HTTP routes its calls through an established HTTP port. Therefore, its calls can cross network firewalls on both the client and server networks. RPC Proxy is located on the RPC server's network. RPC Proxy establishes and maintains a connection to the RPC server. It serves as a proxy, dispatching remote procedure calls to the RPC server and sending the server's replies back across the Internet to the client program.

       The RPC Proxy runs on an IIS computer. It accepts RPC requests coming from the Internet, efficiently connects across the Internet to RPC server programs, and runs remote procedure calls without first requiring a VPN connection. It also performs authentication, validation, and access checks on those requests without opening multiple ports on your firewall. This is done with the help of an intermediary  referred to as RPC-over-HTTP Proxy, or RPC Proxy.

      If the request passes all tests, RPC Proxy forwards the request to the RPC server that performs the actual processing. With RPC over HTTP, the RPC client and server do not communicate directly. Instead, they use RPC Proxy as an intermediary.


Senior Systems Admin
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Top Expert 2010
Commented:

what is the difference in mail flow between exchange 2013 and exchange 2016 and exchange online

What kind of mail flow? There generally isn't a difference for each, but Exchange online's inter-server communication cannot be controlled the way onprem can, and the connector controls are different than onprem. 

what are the tools used for troubleshooting exchange issues.


PowerShell (get-messagetrackinglog on-prem, get-messagetrace in EOL, plus a bunch of other cmdlets), Queue viewer on-prem, tracking logs in EOL (there's a great tool for this in the Security and Compliance admin portal), MFCMAPI (just search for that...it's a tool for connecting to a mailbox at a deep level. Useful for fixing some bugs, but difficult to work with sometimes), nslookup, mxtoolbox.com, and some others. There are a lot of tools, but their use depends on problem. 


I  s there any article which mentions about some important exchange issues faced on exchange 2013, 2016 or office 365

The biggest problems you'll run into for on-prem is Database transaction log management and the mail queue size. If either of those things run out of drive space, databases will either stop receiving mail or dismount to prevent corruption. 

MichelangeloSystem Administrator / Postmaster
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Commented:
Re troubleshooting tools, that the most used generic one is
https://testconnectivity.microsoft.com/

As for mail flow and articles, the answers above are on spot. it depends on what you need to examine/troubleshoot/learnas Exchange is a complex application with integrated high availability logic, based on Active Directory so that comes into play too.