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Pau Lo

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Microsoft cumulative update basics

I am trying to clarify the basics of windows/Microsoft updates on newer versions of Windows Server, so I can make sense of the output of get-hotfix for a sample of servers. My understanding was the updates are now “cumulative”, so you would have a May cumulative update, an April cumulative update, and March cumulative update etc.
In my mind using that probably hugely over-simplified model, get-hotfix would only show at most 12 records in the results, so I am clearly a way off in my suspicions as if I run get-hotfix there are far more than 12 records for a server.  
My questions are as follows:
1) Are the monthly cumulative updates a ‘set’ of individual updates that need to be applied, which will generate multiple entries in get-hotfix report?
2) Or are there the master cumulative updates which will only generate 1 record in get-hotfix, and then some other updates that also need to be applied (perhaps less important) than the cumulative updates?
3) If you apply all relevant updates, to a Windows 2016 server, what will get-hotfix show you, and how can you differentiate the "cumulative updates" to any "other updates" listed in the report?
4) Is there a particular name for any other updates which do not fall under the banner of the "cumulative updates"?
5) Where can we access a history of the critical monthly “cumulative updates” released by Microsoft for each version of Server OS? So I can clearly see when May’s cumulative update was applied to the server vs its release date, when April’s cumulative update was applied vs its release date, when March’s cumulative update was applied vs its release date etc. 
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