I have MS One Drive on my Galaxy phone, iPad and PC.
While the phone seems to show that One Drive is taking care of my photos and files (two separate things), when I look at my One Drive from my PC I see no photos. Just Files. How can I fix this? I see no place to set any sync details or anything on the phone.
If the data does not appear in the cloud, try opening the OneDrive sync app in your smartphone. Validate that your pictures are listed there, and check for their status (e.g. if it says that the pictures are pending to be uploaded).
If the data is in the cloud, but you are not visualizing it from your workstation. Ensure that you are looking into the correct folder, and ensure that your workstation is configured to synchronize that folder.
Does creating a new folder in OneDrive on your phone and dragging\uploading a photo in that new folder\test one show up on your PC OneDrive? Or even that is not working? Do you see other files regularly updating\being added if you were to do so from your phone then check the PC OneDrive File Explorer and also compare the web version of OneDrive if it shows up there?
Do you have a W7 or W10 PC and do you see a correct active sync status or any sync errors on the cloud icon in the bottom right or the task tray of Windows if you expand the carrot < or arrow?
Are you using OneDrive for Business or the Personal OneDrive on your PC? Is it a personal PC or a work-based one?
What Android device do you have? Is it not a Samsung or another model?
"Sync works differently than backup" I believe Microsoft's actual KB notes something different than the screenshot of the app shared above which is odd or is probably outdated on the KB Microsoft has. I cannot re-locate it.
My previous comment is to help you to locate where your photos and videos are in your OneDrive.
After knowing the exact location (folder), you can change the Settings in OneDrive app for Windows 10 to include the said exact location (folder). Details on the procedure is in the above link.
Home, Files, Shared, Photos and Me
I've checked on the One Drive cloud and it has "tabs" for My Files, Recent, Photos, Shared and Recycle Bin.
The photos are in both the phone folder and on-line.
This is a personal PC and when I open One Drive on my desktop (in the task bar) what I see are the folders that are under My Files on-line. This is where it opens at. There's no apparent way to move "up" and there's no Photos folder.
While Photos is its own tab on the phone and while Photos is a tab in One Drive on-line, it's not where photos exist on the PC. For reasons I cannot fathom it's pulling them into Files->Pictures->Samsung Gallery->DCIM.
An extremely unintuitive and unexplained in One Drive anywhere.