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FreeBSD is a free Unix-like operating system that is a direct descendant of BSD. FreeBSD contains a significant collection of server-related software in the base system and the ports collection, it is possible to configure and use FreeBSD as a mail server, web server, Firewall, FTP server, DNS server and a router, among other applications. Although FreeBSD does not install the X Window System by default, it is available in the FreeBSD ports collection. A number of Desktop environments such as GNOME, KDE and Xfce, and lightweight window managers such as Openbox, Fluxbox and dwm are also available to FreeBSD.

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Interestingly enough I have no problem using let's encrypt on Windows platform and figured it was going to be a breeze on *nix... Running into a slew of issues.  For one I am trying to use certbot to facilitate this.  When I issue the correct commands and webroot I see it builds the .well-known folder but it does not build the acme-challenge folder.  If I try to manually create the acme-challenge folder it deletes it after the sudo certbot certonly --webroot -w /var/www/example -d example.com -d www.example.com command (with my domain info substituted of course) with the following error:

Detail: Invalid response from
   <title>403 Forbidden</title>
Super frustrated as everything in *nix is always easier, right?  Well not this time LOL.   Any suggestions would be appreciated!

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  I would like to know if there is a way to create a Symlink-like file but with the difference that the file it points to gets executed when the link is read and the output is what I get from reading it.
  It should work on freebsd/linux.


Best regards
I heard iOS is tailored from FreeBSD so I'm hoping to be able to do something like
"ps -ef |grep email_client_process"
if it's not there, then restart it.

Reason is our MobileIron email+ client kept getting killed by iOS as iOS sees it
as a 3rd party/foreign process.

any chance of doing this on an MDM controlled device?
I inherited a FreeBSD box that is forwarding email using Postfix through various JLS (jails).

Two days ago I switched the MX record(s) to point to a third party service that is going to replace this FreeBSD server.

When I log into the FreeBSD machine and look at the logs (specifically to see if mail is flowing), I see two or three messages in a handful of jails.

A week ago before the MX record change there would have been 20 emails every few minutes, so something obviously changed, which was expected.

What was NOT expected was to see ANY mail flow through the FreeBSD machine.

My question is: Should I expect to see some mail for an extended amount of time? I'm asking because I thought that once I changed the MX record - with a TTL of 300 for all 5 priorities - that it would handle all the mail.

Thanks for your help!
No matter what NTP server address i put in it says "server could not be reached". I tried setting it to force and rebooting it but that didnt do anything either. I'm not understanding why this wont work because i can clearly ping from FreeNAS to my other servers that i want to use as a reference.

I also tried doing it through shell but I don't know if I have the commands correct...
Hi everyone. I'm going crazy trying to join my FREENAS server to windows 2008 AD service. I've tried almost everything with no luck. I always get this message:
Unable to find domain controllers for innovateperu.local.
and the log shows:  
FreeNAS_ActiveDirectory_Base.get_SRV_records: no SRV records for _ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.innovateperu.local found, fail!
I have attached some screenshots of my FREENAS configuration

My local domain is: innovateperu.local
I know that I can organize a single directory listing with:


Open in new window

How would I look for all .php files on the whole drive, with the latest being at the bottom?

Any ideas?
Can I delete /root/authorized_keys in FreeBSD.  I've had some break-ins and want to cover all bases.
I'm trying to figure out what the very top (dot) directory is, and why it shows that it was created today.

dot directory
I'm having trouble getting FTP to work on our server.

When I check auth.log it contains:

Jul  5 13:06:29 216-55-xxx-xxx sshd[57421]: Accepted password for ftpuser from 67.177.xxx.xxx port 58996 ssh2
Jul  5 13:06:29 216-55-xxx-xxx sshd[57423]: subsystem request for sftp by user ftpuser failed, subsystem not found

Any ideas?  It's been a LONG time since I configured this server.
Free Tool: Port Scanner
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Free Tool: Port Scanner

Check which ports are open to the outside world. Helps make sure that your firewall rules are working as intended.

One of a set of tools we are providing to everyone as a way of saying thank you for being a part of the community.

We have a FreeBSD Pfsense appliance on a physical Dell PE1950 in a remote office. It becomes essential for the appliance to send out an alert if its hard drive(s) got bad. How to accomplish that?
I'm wondering if a NUC of type DCCP847DYE would be a good basis for a home-made NAS and basic web server? I would like to run FreeBSD on it with ZFS for expanding storage. And how would i be able to add more storage, physically, as i went along?
Hi there, i need to extract from a FreeBSD server running Qmail the list of all domains and mailboxes, and for each mailbox in the domain the space used.

Example format needed:
Domain1   user1  120MB
Domain1   user2  200MB

Domain2  user1  50MB
Domain2  user2  30MB

and so on...

I wrote the following script that does a partial job:

du -h /usr/local/vpopmail/domains/ |sort -n|grep Maildir$ |tail -15000 |awk -F'/' '{print "Space Used: "$1"\t Domain: "$6,"\t\t\tMailbox:"$7}'

Open in new window

This mainly works, however the main problem is that in the /usr/local/vpopmail/domains/ folder there are also folders "0", "1", "2" containing domains inside (something like postfix does i guess) that i cannot count. So the above command counts correctly only the domains inside /usr/local/vpopmail/domains/$domain_name but not the /usr/local/vpopmail/domains/0/$domain_name.

Anyone can help me please?

Thank you all in advance
We are running the latest VMWare VSphere Essentials 6.0.1 environment where we have three hosts and a couple of SANs shared via iSCSI.  One of the hosts is a Dell PE630 with a rather big local storage volume.
Can this local volume be exposed to other hosts and VMs via iSCSI just like our SANs volumes are..?
If yes, how do I do that?
Thanks for comments
regards Tor
I have to manually migrate our DNS servers from the FreeBSD to Microsoft DNS.  We tried the run zone transfers from the Microsoft DNS servers to FreeBSD but had no luck so the next best option is to manually create all the entries.  Just curious if anyone has any suggestions on what we need to do to successfully migrate all those entries over.  What all are those records that we need to copy over to the Microsoft Active Directory servers (A records..NS records)?  The reverse  zone files and records should be created automatically on the new servers when clients start joining and accessing the networks?

What is wrong with by shell script?


while [ $numberFirst -le $max ]
 numberLast=$(( numberFirst+$jump-1 ))
 curl 'http://my_domain.com/new_crm/migration/db_Contacts.asp?numberFirst='$numberFirst'&numberLast='$numberLast   -o '/data/x'$numberFirst'_'$numberLast'.txt'

/usr/local/bin/mysql --defaults-file=/conf/m.conf << EOF
use mydb;
LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE '/data/x'$numberFirst'_'$numberLast'.txt' 
INTO TABLE Contacts  

numberFirst=$(( numberFirst+$jump ))

Open in new window

I get an error:
Syntax error: end of file unexpected
Does anyone know how to disable the firewall configuration on a Free BSD server?  DNS service is hosted on it and I need to do a zone transfer but it doesn't seem to allow it as there are some kind of firewall settings that is preventing it.  I am trying to avoid having create the records manually as we need to migrate it to a Windows DNS server.
My file system is full and I'm having a hard time trying to find space.  I don't know how to get to that first drive:

I'm using FreeBSD.
I am running a apache web server and then doing reverse proxy to confluence server. when I try to upload some files to confluence server (less than 100MB) it woks fine (it takes around 3 minute to upload)

but I have one big file close to 300MB which takes more than 10 minute to upload and upload gets failed and I get below error:

Proxy Error 502 : The proxy server received an invalid response from an upstream server

Open in new window

Here is my proxy configuration.

#Rewrite rule for Confluence
RewriteCond     %{HTTP_HOST}    ^confluence.example.com     [NC]
RewriteRule     ^/(.*)$$1        [P]
ProxyPassReverse /

I believe issue would be related to timeout setting somewhere. Appreciate if someone can help me in fixing it.
On Demand Webinar - Networking for the Cloud Era
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On Demand Webinar - Networking for the Cloud Era

This webinar discusses:
-Common barriers companies experience when moving to the cloud
-How SD-WAN changes the way we look at networks
-Best practices customers should employ moving forward with cloud migration
-What happens behind the scenes of SteelConnect’s one-click button

We use McAfee's SaaS Email Protection as a anti-spam gateway. Our MX records are properly set up so all mail to the domain goes through the gateway. However, we have found that some spammers are able to bypass the service entirely by sending mail directly to the IP address instead of the MX record.

McAfee says this:
Lock Down
Prevent attackers from bypassing the SaaS Email Protection by configuring your email server or firewall to only allow SMTP connections from the IP space used by the service.
Here are the IPs in various notation types. If you provide these to your e-mail provider, they should be able to lock down your e-mail connection to only accept inbound mail from McAfee EPS and prevent this type of message from reaching your firm in the future.

I have the IP list from McAffee in CIDR/21 and CIDR/24 formats as well as individual IP addresses. I manage the email server myself, but not sure where or how to enable this. Perhaps in /usr/etc/access ?

I do not believe the configuration is specific to FreeBSD platform, probably any Linux or other server running Sendmail.

Looking for some instructions on exactly how to configure this. Thanks in advance!
Good day, dear colleagues!
I have several NASes based on - Nayla (revision 1349)
My goal is to be able to mount and unmount encrypted ufs partitions (mnt1 & mnt2) via SSH
Now I’m able to connect to SSH via root account, so what should I do next?
Thanx in advance :)
Hi, looking for an Hardware appliance that will serve as a DNS server, handle Internet restrictions (white/black lists), maybe Proxy.  We currently are using FREEBSD with Squid, OpenDNS. to do what we need to do, but too many issues and support issues.  Looking for something more enterprise level.
Any suggestion?
I have the following setup,
S: FreeBSD 

Apache 2.2

PHP 5.3

MySQL 5.5

Nowadays I just sign PDF files with PKCS#12 at server side.

In my PHP webpage when I need to sign some PDF I developed a JAVA JAR application with iText.

So I just call this java app from PHP using exec function. This java will receive a PDF file as input, so it will sign with de PKCS#12 and create an output_file signed.


exec("java -jar /path_to_java_app/MySigner.jar ‘INPUT_FILE.pdf’  ‘OUTPUT_SIGNED_FILE.pdf’ ");


But now I need to sign using PKCS#11 - token usb at the client side.

How can i do this? Any sample code woukd be appreciated.

We are facing with an issue of after 500K pps SRX3600 start to give answers so late or dropping all packets
we need to find a few things
1. How should we see the pps capacity of current configuration
2. how should we detect if we reached the pps limits
3. What is the limit of pps of 40 byte packets with 1 spc and 1 npc
King regards

At a client, I have about 15 "servers" that maintain the usual services: DNS, DHCP, email, web, ERP (that is split on 5 different servers), CRM, etc.

The "servers" are most of them over 5 years-old (some over 10), with 256MB-1GB RAM, so I want to virtualize the services.
As cost is always an issue, I recommended 3 HP DL 320e, with 16GB RAM and 2TB drives. They should have more than enough resources for the current services plus some space to grow.

Now I'm researching software options for the virtualization hosts.

- easy to maintain: some form of web/graphical interface to stop/start/create/migrate virtual machines.
- some form of high availability. Not instant, a 45 minutes downtime is acceptable, as long as human intervention is not required.
- some way to backup the virtual machines without stopping them.
- not Microsoft. The client is a Linux shop and does not trust MS.
- low cost.

So far, I've looked at
- vSphere (for HA), but it is very expensive and made for datacenters
- Hyper-V. No HA and made by MS
- Proxmox. Looks like an UI on top of KVM and fairly popular. They seem to have a HA option (VE Cluster). Anyone has experience with that?

Can I get some opinions/suggestions on what do you think it's an acceptable software solution for this situation?

Thank you.






FreeBSD is a free Unix-like operating system that is a direct descendant of BSD. FreeBSD contains a significant collection of server-related software in the base system and the ports collection, it is possible to configure and use FreeBSD as a mail server, web server, Firewall, FTP server, DNS server and a router, among other applications. Although FreeBSD does not install the X Window System by default, it is available in the FreeBSD ports collection. A number of Desktop environments such as GNOME, KDE and Xfce, and lightweight window managers such as Openbox, Fluxbox and dwm are also available to FreeBSD.

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