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HTTP Protocol

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. Hypertext is structured text that uses logical links (hyperlinks) between nodes containing text. HTTP is the protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext. HTTP functions as a request-response protocol in the client-server computing model. HTTP is designed to permit intermediate network elements to improve or enable communications between clients and servers. HTTP is an application layer protocol designed within the framework of the Internet Protocol Suite; it presumes an underlying and reliable transport layer protocol.

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How do I send a http request to a webserver using post without a web browser.

IE this will come from a script, what does the script look like?

Andy
0
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I am trying to connect to a secure VAN and push and pull files over a secure connection.  As we are trying to set it up, the people at the VAN are getting this error.

Error Message:

AS2 Outbound has a HTTP proxy server to connect through.Probably error while connecting to proxy : [Error sending document over http to host [http://X.X.213.93], status code [405], reason [Method Not Allowed], response from server [<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">< html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">< head>< meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"/>< title>405 - HTTP verb used to access this page is not allowed.</title>< style type="text/css">< !-- body{margin:0;font-size:.7em;font-family:Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;background:#EEEEEE;} fieldset{padding:0 15px 10px 15px;} h1{font-size:2.4em...]]

Summary:

Sending of document [167499846.edi] to [http://X.X.213.93] FAILED

Any ideas of what I am missing or doing wrong?  The X.X.213.93 is the public IP of my machine receiving the files.

Thanks
0
Need to write a script which:
1. Download the json file (curl request)
2. Rename the file to  YYYYMMDDHHMM_lng.xml
3. Push it to a shared folder (for example //192.168.1.1/log)
0
Hi Experts

I am working on a wagtail project(like django-cms) I get this error when I run python3 manage.py runserver 0.0.0.0:8000

 
code 400, message Bad request syntax 
  ('\x16\x03\x01\x00®\x01\x00\x00ª\x03\x03³\x06âP\x97Þ%<Sg\x13Ö×[zE\x96\x15?
  \x96\x00\x1ah')
  You're accessing the development server over HTTPS, but it only supports 
  HTTP.

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I had changed SECURE_SSL_REDIRECT=FALSE and tested it still i get this same error. I had disabled cache in chrome.

 I had deactivated chorme caching in registry  by following steps.
Deactivate Chrome Cache in the Registry

Open Registry (Start -> Command -> Regedit)

Search for: HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\ChromeHTML\shell\open\command

Change the part after ...chrom.exe" to this value: –disable-application- cache –media-cache-size=1 –disk-cache-size=1 — "%1"

Example: "C:\Program Files (x86)\Google\Chrome\Application\chrome.exe" - disable-application-cache –media-cache-size=1 –disk-cache-size=1 — "%1"

I had also tried disable cache from chrome developer tools network -disable cache.

I had also tried by clearing cache from hsts on chrome.

I had also tried from incognito window on chrome. But still I get the same error

It is an Ubuntu machine on AWS(accessed by putty from windows pc).

I access from outside (windows pc - local pc )through http://54.23x.9x.17:8000 I am not able to resolve this error.


I had tried on some other machine.  I got the following error on console for Linux Ubuntu

it is changing to https instead of http and I got "GET / HTTP/1.1" 301 0 on console window


Please help me in resolving this error.

With Many Thanks, Bharath AK
0
CNAME Record caused my emails to fail.

I hosted 2 emails at RackSpace for my domain, and verified they worked fine. This required me to update the MX records where I host my domain.
name1@domain1.com
name2@domain1.com


Fine.

Then, before I could create a website, I was allowed by my partner to point my domain at his website.

The redirect worked once I created a CNAME record.
domain1.com brings up the site at domain2.com

But the emails stopped working.

The error is "553 Relaying disallowed"

I called RackSpace and they said it's because the MX records at the domain2.com, where domain1.com points at, are pointing to Zoho (a major email provider).

So, my question is...

If I move my two emails from RackSpace to Zoho, can I have a solution where

1) domain forwarding is working (domain1.com brings up the site at domain2.com)
2) emails work as well (both (domain1.com emails work again)

?

Thanks.

Or, is there another way to configure this?

Thanks
0
In Android 6.0, using SDK 25, should java.net.HttpURLConnection be obeying the system properties http.keepAlive and http.maxConnections?

With netstat, I can verify that in the system there are 2 TCP connections continuously open to my server. These connections appear to be neatly reused for HTTP keep alive and they appear when I start the player, disappear when I stop the player. I am using ExoPlayer for live dash streaming (player is downloading approx 3-5 files every 10 seconds from the same server, audio chunk, video chunk and manifest).

But the underlying system seems to ignore the http.maxConnections (and even http.keepAlive) that I wish to control.

My goal is to set http.maxConnections to 1 and ensure there is exactly 1 HTTP keep alive (TCP) connection open to the server. Any way to accomplish this?
0
See: https://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/ieinternals/2009/07/20/internet-explorers-cache-control-extensions/

Generally, the pre-check directive is very similar to max-age. However, IE's implementation of max-age takes the Age response header into account. In contrast, the implementation of post-check and pre-check do not. Hence, pre-check is equivalent to max-age only when there is no Age header on the response.

This article is from 2009, so pretty old. How max-age and the Age header are related nowawdays? Or are they not related at all anymore?
0
Why can I not update the URL in the browser?

I update QueryString and remove a malicious parameter. But, after executing the following code:

                filterContext.HttpContext.RewritePath(filterContext.HttpContext.Request.Path,
                                                       filterContext.HttpContext.Request.PathInfo,
                                                       filterContext.HttpContext.Request.QueryString.ToString());

Still see that bad domain.

I may be fighting development automation inside my own project;

I paste the following into the browser...

http://SENB-0186.mydomain.org/ContentManagement/?
goto=http%3a%2f%2fsenb-0186.mydomain.org.evil.com%3a80%2fContentManagement%2f

My code captures the goto parameter and removes it from the QueryString. I call the RewritePath() function above, and see the following in the browser


https://dev.nim.mydomain.org/IdentityServices//?return=http://senb-0186.mydomain.org
/ContentManagement/Account/LogOn?ReturnUrl=%2fContentManagement%2f%3fgoto%3dhttp%253a%252f%252f
senb-0186.mydomain.org.evil.com%253a80%252fContentManagement%252f&u
gid=040dec88-8a99-4410-bf72-1d868a207c8d

I have no problem with the introduction of https://dev.nim.mydomain.org/IdentityServices//?
but I do have a problem that the  mydomain.org.evil.com sub-domain re-appears.

Suggestions?

I even created a copy of QueryString, made the deletions on the sanitized version. But that also fails.

                …
0
My question is about one specific reason to use max-age over Expires.

See for example: https://www.mnot.net/cache_docs/#EXPIRES
Although the Expires header is useful, it has some limitations. First, because there’s a date involved, the clocks on the Web server and the cache must be synchronised; if they have a different idea of the time, the intended results won’t be achieved, and caches might wrongly consider stale content as fresh.

But with max-age you also have the exact same problem, right? In my opinion there are 2 possibilities:

1. A cache receives a response from a server. The cache's clock starts counting from that moment. If there would be a delay between the server sending the response, and the cache receiving the response, then the age would be incorrect. So this is not a good way to calculate the age.

2. A cache receives a response from a server. The age of the response is calculated as a difference between the cache's current date and the Date general header included in the HTTP response.

Case 2 is in my opinion the right way to calculate the age of the response. But the reponse header field "Date" will be determined by the server. Just like "Expires" will be determined by the server. So in both cases the server's clock will be compared with the cache's clock. So in this respect (clock synchronization), I see no difference between max-age and Expires?

With case 1 they would be right, because then the cache's clock on moment A …
0
Need to Redirect after removing one or more query string params.


I am using a whitelist to remove dangerous query string params, and when done, need to redirect to whatever is left in the  query string.

I understand things may break, but am okay letting our website's existing default behavior handle it.

What is the exact command to redirect?

ActionExecutingContext filterContext is the input param of the ActionFilterAttribute

        public override void OnActionExecuting(ActionExecutingContext filterContext)

and after removing the faulty query string params from:

filterContext.HttpContext.Request.QueryString

I am ready to redirect.

                filterContext.HttpContext.Response.Redirect(filterContext.HttpContext.Request.);

Please complete the the above parameter for Redirect()

Thanks
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Check which ports are open to the outside world. Helps make sure that your firewall rules are working as intended.

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When a stored response is used to satisfy a request without validation, my browser is not showing me the HTTP reponse header field: "Age"?

Just take a simple test.html file, which is chacheable by default. Now visit the page 2 times, so the second time the file is shown directly from cache without validation.

Firefox shows me response headers like this:

Date: Mon, 12 Mar 2018 16:05:18 GMT
Server: Apache/2.4.17 (Unix) OpenSSL/1.0.1e-fips PHP/5.6.16
Last-Modified: Mon, 12 Mar 2018 12:24:12 GMT
Accept-Ranges: bytes
Content-Length: 143
Content-Type: text/html

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But why Firefox does not show me the "Age" header field?

See: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7234

When a stored response is used to satisfy a request without validation, a cache MUST generate an Age header field

And see: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7234#section-5.1

However, lack of an Age header field does not imply the origin was contacted, since the response might have been received from an HTTP/1.0 cache that does not implement Age.

A browser's cache is not HTTP/1.0, so the response headers must contain an Age header field. Firefox is not showing me "Age"?

Are browsers only showing the response and request headers of the server? But if that's the case then they had to show no response headers at all, because there was no response from server in case of "200 OK (cached)"?

So I don't understand this? What's the logic behind this?

P.S. The example was about Firefox, but for example Chrome is doing the same.
0
See: http://php.net/manual/en/function.session-cache-limiter.php

PHP is using:

Expires: Thu, 19 Nov 1981 08:52:00 GMT

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I don't understand this 100%. A cache could have a different idea about time. Although it's really rare, a cache could think it's 1980. In a case like that, the cached copy will be seen as fresh.

When using:

Expires: 0

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you can avoid problems like that. So in my opinion PHP is choosing the second best solution instead of the best solution.

See: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7234#section-5.3

A cache recipient MUST interpret invalid date formats, especially the
value "0", as representing a time in the past (i.e., "already
expired").

So when using the value "0", you know for sure it will be seen as a date in the past. But this is the protocol for HTTP/1.1 (not HTTP/1.0).

I was also searching for some information about HTTP/1.0 and invalid dates, but I could not find an answer. I know HTTP/1.0 CAN implement things from HTTP/1.1.

How HTTP/1.0 caches are dealing with invalide dates? And can I be sure that in all situations "Expires: 0" will be seen as a date in the past? And if no, do you have examples?

I saw Google is using:

Expires: -1

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In the past people were setting Expires via html via the meta tag ... in cases like that "-1" could mean something different than "0", but in what kind of situations "Expires: -1" means something different than "Expires: 0" in the http headers?

So what to use? Date in the past, 0 or -1?
0
I'm trying to understand:

Vary: Accept-Encoding

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Let's say we have:

- client 1 (only understands gzip-encoding)
- client 2 (only understands deflate-encoding)
- a shared cache
- a server (supports gzip and deflate encoding / compression, so the server can send the response message body encoded / compressed)
- a resource (1 url, cacheable)

If client 1 first will make a request to the resource, then the response will be stored in cache. The resource is gzip-encoded. If now client 2 will make a request, then the cache will server the gzip-encoded version which client 2 does not understand.

This is what I understand about it from the internet. But this sounds weird to me.

1. The stored reponse in cache must contain: "Content-Encoding: gzip", because when a server will send an encoded response, it will let you know which encoding has been used. So if I would be a cache and I would get a request with "Accept-Encoding: deflate" (or with an empty value). As a cache I know that my stored response is gzip-encoded (because of the stored "Content-Encoding: gzip"). Then I don't need no "Vary: Accept-Encoding" to know that I have to make a new request to the server??

So why "Vary: Accept-Encoding" exists anyway and in what kind of situations it really makes a difference?

2. Are there also caches around, which can decode / encode (gzip / deflate)? In cases like there is also no need to add "Vary: Accept-Encoding", because a cache could decode …
0
If you have for exampe an image with max-age=31536000, when using HTTPS what is the best to do:

1:
Cache-Control: public, max-age=31536000

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2:
Cache-Control: private, max-age=31536000

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3:
Cache-Control: max-age=31536000

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Which one and why?


I also did some own research, but I'm not sure yet what the answer has to be. I think this is true:

By default web browsers should cache content over HTTPS the same as over HTTP, unless explicitly told otherwise via the HTTP Headers received.

This is about the cache of the browser. For shared caches I think this is true:

If the request is authenticated or secure (i.e., HTTPS), it won’t be cached by shared caches.

Google is saying here, see: https://developers.google.com/web/fundamentals/performance/optimizing-content-efficiency/http-caching

If the response is marked as "public", then it can be cached, even if it has HTTP authentication associated with it, and even when the response status code isn't normally cacheable. Most of the time, "public" isn't necessary, because explicit caching information (like "max-age") indicates that the response is cacheable anyway.

That's what Google is saying, but I also checked what they are doing. See:

Example: https://www.google.nl/images/branding/googlelogo/2x/googlelogo_color_120x44dp.png
cache-control:private, max-age=31536000

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Example: https://www.google.com/textinputassistant/tia.png
cache-control:public, max-age=31536000

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0
Reponse headers can contain something like:

Cache-Control: must-revalidate

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But "must-revalidate" does not exist for the request headers, see:

https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7234.html#section-5.2.1

Why? Is there a reason behind this?

Take for example me, my browser, my browser's cache and the origin server. Let's say there is a stale cached copy in the browser's cache. Imagine I don't want the cached copy to be served without making any request to the server. Also not if the cache is disconnected from the origin server. I could add must-revalidate in the request headers, but this only exists for the response headers in similar situations.

Why is that and what's behind it? Directives like max-age, no-cache, no-store you have for the response AND the request directives, so why must-revalidate is an exception to that?
0
Let's first take a look at the definitions.

1. Max-age in request headers:
See: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7234.html#section-5.2.1

The "max-age" request directive indicates that the client is
unwilling to accept a response whose age is greater than the
specified number of seconds.  Unless the max-stale request directive
is also present, the client is not willing to accept a stale
response.

2. Max-age in the response headers:
See: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7234.html#page-26

The "max-age" response directive indicates that the response is to be
considered stale after its age is greater than the specified number
of seconds.

And see: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7234#section-4.2.4

A cache MUST NOT send stale responses unless it is disconnected
(i.e., it cannot contact the origin server or otherwise find a
forward path)

So is it true that "max-age=0" in the response headers is NOT equivalent to "no-cache" in the reponse headers (because of case disconnected), BUT "max-age=0" in the request headers IS equivalent to "no-cache" in the reponse headers?

3. No-cache in the request headers:
See: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7234.html#page-23

The "no-cache" request directive indicates that a cache MUST NOT use
a stored response to satisfy the request without successful
validation on the origin server.

4. No-cache in the response headers:
See: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7234.html#section-5.2.2</a>
0
I have a web application built in vb.net. The home page is "main.aspx". I have x3 other websites that are directing traffic to the this website...the redirects are pointed to the main.aspx page. How can I capture which site the traffic is coming from? I'm thinking something with the headers. I would really like to capture the referring url or something that is unique.
0
Dear sirs,
I am setting up a global exception handler in Spring. Once an exception is caught, a method in the @ControllerAdvice is called in, and returns a specific view with exception details. Among info returned with the view, I have the HttpStatus, that can get. Actually I keep getting 200, while the right HttpStatus should be 500, 404, etc.
Here is my code
@ControllerAdvice
@Slf4j
public class AppGlobalExceptionHandler {
      /*
       * Note: You can either point to Exception Types or Http ResponseStatus
       * @ExceptionHandler({MyException.class})
       * public String ...
       *
       * @ExceptionHandler
       * @ResponseStatus(HttpStatus.INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR)
       * public String
       * */
      
      @ExceptionHandler
      public String handleAnyException(Exception exception, Model model,
                  HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) {
            
            log.error("Request raised " + exception.getClass().getSimpleName());
            
            String details = ExceptionUtils.getStackTrace(exception);
            
            AppError error = new AppError();
            error.setStatus(response.getStatus());
            error.setUrl(String.valueOf(request.getRequestURL()));
            error.setMessage(exception.getMessage());
            error.setDetails(details);
            
            model.addAttribute(AppStringHandler.VARIABLE_URL_SUBMIT, AppStringHandler.URL_TASKS_SEND_EMAIL_500);
            model.addAttribute(AppStringHandler.VARIABLE_URL_REDIRECT, AppStringHandler.URL_ADMIN_REDIRECT);
            model.addAttribute(AppStringHandler.VIEW_ERROR_MODEL_ATTRIBUTE, error);
            
            …
0
I have Tomcat 8.0.35 running, web application running from IntelliJ IDEA 2017.3.3 (build successful and WAR deployed) but the browser (I tried with Chrome, Firefox, and IE) is showing HTTP Status 404 when I try to access http://localhost:8080/ or http://127.0.0.1:8080/.

I built my web application with Maven as WAR. The WAR file was successfully deployed in Tomcat's "/webapps/ROOT" directory and "index.html" and "index.jsp" are there and at the end of the deployment the browser page is open.

Tomat is configured to default ports: 8080, 8081, 8009.
localhost-8080---WAR-artifact-is-dep.PNG
localhost-8080---http-status-404.PNG
0
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MT DV HTTP/2
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1
Our mobile app is experiencing a strange behavior in a place where they have WiFi. If the app uses THAT WiFi there's an HTTP POST request (to our API) that gets the response content truncated randomly (not always truncated, and if truncated not always at the same place).

I made several tests at that place (using the app and also Postman) and found that on mobile data the response always comes OK, but when connecting with that WiFi the response sometimes gets truncated. Also, I saw that other API requests get the response correctly, even when the content length is 10 times bigger (I thought that maybe the response was too big, but we're talking about just 10Kb).

The failing request is a regular POST request sent to a REST API made with Dropwizard. The request gets processed correctly on the server, which returns status 200 and the content. The client gets the status 200 but the content is truncated, so the whole operation can't be finished.

I wonder if there's something wrong with that WiFi, or if this kind of response errors must be expected and dealt by our application. I haven't seen this behavior before.
0
what are difference between http post and get, as far as what/how data is passed in a http request.
Reason I'm asking is, I created a simple ASP.NET MVC application. I have two methods (shown below, example contrived for this question). one method is decorated with [HttpPost] and other one is not. when i make a call from a third party app, it hits the break point in the first function ProcessData1 and I get the id parameter as well, since it is being passed in query string.
but if i try to make a call to ProcessData2, it doesn't hit the break point in that function.
I know the third party application, I'm using is making a Http post call.
I tried another rest client and this time when I made a call to ProcessData2, it was successful.

can some one point out possible reasons?

        public ActionResult ProcessData1(string id) {          
            return View(request);
        }

       [HttpPost]
        public ActionResult ProcessData2() {          
            return View(request);
        }
0
I want to create an IIS URL rewrite rule which should make the site to respond with the same content on any request. This rule is to be applied when the site goes under a maintenance.
My rule looks like the following:
        <rewrite>
            <rules>
                <rule name="Stub" enabled="true" patternSyntax="ECMAScript" stopProcessing="true">
                    <match url=".*" />
                    <action type="Rewrite" url="/maintenance.htm?URL={R:0}" appendQueryString="true" logRewrittenUrl="true" />
                    <conditions>
                        <add input="{REMOTE_ADDR}" pattern="127.0.0.1" negate="true" />
                        <add input="{REMOTE_ADDR}" pattern="172.31.3" negate="true" />
                    </conditions>
                </rule>
            </rules>
        </rewrite>        

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It works perfectly for any request to resources in the root folder. But on any request to a sub-directory the server responds with 403 Forbidden

For example, a request like http://mysite.com/s.gif correctly returns the content of the file maintenance.htm (located in the site's root folder), but a request like http://mysite.com/2/s.gif  returns
 <h2>403 - Forbidden: Access is denied.</h2>
  <h3>You do not have permission to view this directory or page using the credentials that you supplied.</h3>

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(there is a file /2/s.gif and it is correctly returned when the rule is disabled).
In the W3SVC log file I can see:
2017-12-20 22:01:36 172.31.34.109 GET /maintenance.htm URL=2/s.gif 443 - 173.161.245.141 Mozilla/5.0+(Windows+NT+6.1;+WOW64;+rv:52.0)+Gecko/20100101+Sea-Monkey/2.49.1+(similar+to+Firefox/52.0) - 403 18 0 78

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Please help.
0
I am doing an HTTP post call to a database to pull information to load an audio player.

I am successful getting a JSON string with the desired details.

What I'm having trouble with is passing one of the JSON variables to the audio player as the source.

Here's a bit of code that shows what I'm trying to do.

<h1>{dir.dv_talent}</h1>
<h2>{{total_time}}</h2>

<audio id="player" my-audio>
    <source src="/radio/{{dir.dv_file}}.ogg" type="audio/ogg" />
    <source src="/radio/{{dir.dv_file}}.mp3" type="audio/mpeg" />
</audio>

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So what works is the <h1> tag that displays the Talent Name and the <h2>Tag that gives the total time.  I also know there is valid data for dir.dv_file but when I inspect the code, it shows it as {{dir.dv_file}}.

So what that indicates to me is that the {{dir.dv_file}} is not converted to the passed variable inside of the <audio> tag.

So my question is how do I get that variable to be passed within that <audio> tag.
0
My question is about: https://www.mnot.net/blog/2007/05/15/expires_max-age

They're saying:

The problem with that line of reasoning is that HTTP versions aren’t black and white like this; just because something advertises itself as HTTP/1.0, doesn’t mean it doesn’t understand HTTP/1.1 (see RFC2145 for more).

But here they are saying:

https://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec14.html#sec14.9.3

If a response includes both an Expires header and a max-age directive, the max-age directive overrides the Expires header, even if the Expires header is more restrictive. This rule allows an origin server to provide, for a given response, a longer expiration time to an HTTP/1.1 (or later) cache than to an HTTP/1.0 cache.

So or the article is incorrect, or W3 is incorrect (or I'm wrong :p). With the last sentence, W3 means you can give a different expiration time to a HTTP/1.1 cache (or later), compared with a HTTP/1.0 cache. You can do this by using max-age and the Expires header.
So they can only say something like that, by assuming the HTTP/1.0 cache will ignore the max-age, because otherwise you will just have the same expiration time for all the caches (HTTP/1.0 and HTTP/1.1 et cetera).

So what is true about HTTP/1.0 caches understanding max-age?
0

HTTP Protocol

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. Hypertext is structured text that uses logical links (hyperlinks) between nodes containing text. HTTP is the protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext. HTTP functions as a request-response protocol in the client-server computing model. HTTP is designed to permit intermediate network elements to improve or enable communications between clients and servers. HTTP is an application layer protocol designed within the framework of the Internet Protocol Suite; it presumes an underlying and reliable transport layer protocol.

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HTTP Protocol
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