HTTP Protocol

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. Hypertext is structured text that uses logical links (hyperlinks) between nodes containing text. HTTP is the protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext. HTTP functions as a request-response protocol in the client-server computing model. HTTP is designed to permit intermediate network elements to improve or enable communications between clients and servers. HTTP is an application layer protocol designed within the framework of the Internet Protocol Suite; it presumes an underlying and reliable transport layer protocol.

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Microsoft's documentation states that it may return either the Host name or the IP address but it doesn't say how the framework determines which one to return. I'm having a problem in a production environment where Url.Authority returns the host name sometimes and at other times returns the IP address.

I need to ensure that it returns the host name every time. I've created a workaround for the moment but its not ideal, I need to figure out how to fix this.

I'm using the .NET Framework version 4.6.1 in all environments.
 <form method= "post" action= "edit.php">
            <div class="panel-body">
              <div class="row">
                <div class="col-md-3 col-lg-3 " id= "show"> <img alt="User Pic" src= <?php echo "../profilepic/" .$path; ?> class="img-circle img-responsive">
                <button class="btn btn-sm btn-info" id="opener"><i class="glyphicon glyphicon-edit"></i></button>
                <div class=" col-md-9 col-lg-9 "> 
                  <table class="table table-user-information">
                        <td>First name:</td>
                        <td><span id= "keep"><?php echo $firstname;?></span><input id= "change" value= "<?php echo $firstname;  ?>" style= "display:none;" name="name"></td> 
                        <td>Last name:</td>
                        <td><span id= "keep5"><?php echo $lastname;?></span><input id= "change5" value= "<?php echo $lastname;  ?>" style= "display:none;" name="lname"></td> 
                        <td>Date of Birth</td>
                        <td><span id= "keep1"><?php echo $birthday; ?></span><input id= "change1" value= "<?php echo $birthday; ?>" style= "display:none;" name="bday"></td>

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This is giving me a headache and I can't figure out what is wrong.

I have a userform which I submit with a submit button.
One of the textboxes is called 'client'.

On the next page, I get the following error message:

Notice: Undefined index: client in E:\xampp\htdocs\sales_insert2.php on line 13

when I put the form variable into a php variable:

$client = htmlspecialchars($_POST["client"]);

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What is wrong?
I had this question after viewing Computer crashes, following error message in event manager.

When opening Component Services and the identified service the Security settings are greyed out and cannot be changed.
Hi Guys,
I have an Internet Information Services web server, and it was attacked by ransomware.
Honestly I don't even know how can the hacker actually infect the server just by using the port 80.

Since this is a production server I just restored an earlier snapshot and it is now back up and running.

The thing is that now management is requesting a postmortem investigation, and a report stating if there was client information compromised.

We do have a completely different server (SQL Server) that the WEB Server uses to get/save client data, but as far as I can tell the SQL server was not compromised.

Now since I had to restore the snapshot in a rush or otherwise all our clients would be looking at a pretty error page, how can I find some conclusions as to the postmortem report, to answer some questions like:

How did this happen?
Did the attacker penetrated through port 80?
Was any information in the SQL Server compromised?

Are their any applications out there to Test/Monitor whether the maximum number concurrent HTTP requests per host is exceeded it's limit.

As specified in this MSDN article

Thank you.
I am the beginner in this technology and its been 8 hours straight and i am not able to figure out the issue, the first thing i am not understanding is about first 3 tags,


the request which is generated by C# does not include "soapenv:"
More over the exception "Data at the root level is invalid".
I have tried the other way, directly passing the static data by XML and got the response which means that my credentials and server is working fine.  But now i have to pass values dynamically, so gotta use C# way. Any help will be appreciated and I shall be really grateful. Its getting pain in the a** -_-

Thanks in advance.

The XML request is

<soapenv:Envelope xmlns:soapenv="" xmlns="">
<HotelAvailRQ Version="1.1" Language="en"> <Login Email="" Password="pass" /> 
<Pax IdPax="1"> 
<SearchSegmentHotels Start="2013-08-20" End="2013-08-22" DestinationZone="1953"/> <CountryOfResidence>ES</CountryOfResidence> 
<Board Type="AD"/> 
<RelPax IdPax="1"/> 

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in C# i made like this:

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Hi Experts

Can anyone tell me how  are non-existent links are coded, in general, and in PHP?

By Non-Existent Links, I mean how EE does it for example:

I do not think that there really is a 28983605 directory, and a Determining-Project-Cost.html static file, since  these are created dynamically? In WordPress, they call it PermaLink.

Thank you
I want that if someone links to our wordpress site and somewhere in the query string there is aaa=<value> then for all external links they are re-written to include that at the end, also the <value> needs to be preserved if the user changes pages and moves around the site, so I'm guessing it needs to be added to the session.

How is this possible?
how to automatically send a file to a ftp server every 6 hours?
We have an in-house FTP server running FileZilla Server which has some limits/issues and now we are looking for an alternative solution that meets the following requirements
- Not cloud based. It has to be installed on our own computer in our company.
- When our clients upload files, they do not need any client software to be installed on their computers.
- Does not use FTP protocol.

Any suggestions?


Do HTTP POST packets appear in a broadcast?

Suppose client-1 tries to authenticate to server via HTTP.  
client-2 on is sniffing the wire. Will the hTTP POST be broadcasted to client-2?
Need to retrieve and save or display an image file (usually .jpg or .pdf) returned by a call to a secure outside server.  I'm used to retrieving data arrays in this way (content-type application/xml and application/json), but have never had to deal with a file or image (content-type application/octet-stream).

I can get the return, but don't know how to process it using PHP.  Here is an example of the returned info:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache Pragma: no-cache Content-Length: 228863 Content-Type: application/octet-stream Expires: -1 Server: Microsoft-IIS/7.5 Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=picture.jpg X-AspNet-Version: 4.0.30319 X-Powered-By: ASP.NET Date: Fri, 28 Oct 2016 19:43:37 GMT ����JFIF``��XExifMM*GFGIc�i2��>� ... [228K of data].

Can anyone provide pointers?


I am converting an Applet into a Desktop Application, and one of the internal program's services includes a SOAP client, designed to send information to a remote server. Here is a piece of the code in charge of this process:


import org.w3c.dom.Document;
import org.w3c.dom.NodeList;

import javax.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilder;
import javax.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilderFactory;
import javax.xml.transform.*;
import javax.xml.transform.dom.DOMSource;
import java.util.logging.Level;
import java.util.logging.Logger;

public class SoapClient {
    public static JSONObject callMethod(String path, String method, Object... args) {
        HttpURLConnection connection = null;
        String            data       = null;
        try {
            data = parseXML(method, args);
            MainClass.debug("Making http POST connections to : " + path);
            URL           u  = new URL(path);
            URLConnection uc = u.openConnection();
            connection = (HttpURLConnection) uc;

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Hello Experts.

    Websocket-client connects to websocket-server through haproxy.
    Sometimes transmission works, sometimes not.
    Websocket-client is based on python2.6/site-packages/websocket_client-0.7.0-py2.6.egg/
    Websocket-server based on c++ library.
    Haproxy version is 1.5.x

    As you can see, websocket client reuses connection when python-script is reentered.
    Note, if not to reuse the connection, there are no errors.

    How get rid of this error?
    #must we put here something to "flush" the "mysterios" ws "buffer"? ( See this comment in script )

    Script, error-trace, haproxy.cfg and log are attached.

Thank you.
I have a web site hosted on Server2012 R2 and every page served has an HTTP Response header of "no-cache". I have set the "Common http response headers" in IIS to expire after 7 days and added a "Cache-Control max-age = 604800" NV pair to the http response headers, but I still see "no-cache" on every page.
Any clues ?
I am setting the following header in response of my spring web application :

I load my web application using https://localhost:4430/notes
4430 is the https port i have specified for my embedded jetty server...

I also see this header when my application page is loaded...
Now when i remove the s from this url i was expecting that it would auto hit https url But instead the url was aborted by the firefox browser :
All i see in the net panel is :
These are the response headers when the url is loaded with https://
Screen-Shot-2016-10-05-at-7.10.14-PM.pngWhat could be the reason for this ?

Is there a guide or reference some place that will interpret the HTTP accept header?

Here are two examples

application/json, text/javascript, */*; q=0.01
*/*;q=0.5, text/javascript, application/javascript, application/ecmascript, application/x-ecmascript

In the RFC:
There is a line : obs-text       = %x80-FF
What does this mean ?

My site has been using HTTP for most of our product links.  We will send out emails to our customers about a special and point the link in the email to the product link on our website.  I have recently changed our site to use HTTPS for more security.  However the old links that use HTTP are now redirecting back to the home page and I'm not sure how to make the system find the product page using HTTP or HTTPS?
Our site is built using a magento platform, so i can use the magneto admin feature to point to HTTP or HTTPS and or I can change the HTACCESS file, I tried both and it seems that any old link just keep defaulting back to our home page, I believe that is coming from the HTACCESS file.
Any advice or suggestion would be help full.
I need to config a squid server  between L3-switch and router without change configuration .  L3--->squid--->router
I installed a transparent squid  between the switch and the router in bridge mode, the switch has several vlans that speaks with a route.
All vlans can reach the router so bridging seems ok, but  i cant't see any log in squid's access.log  
my config as follows:
/usr/sbin/brctl addbr br0
/usr/sbin/brctl addif br0 eth0
/usr/sbin/brctl addif br0 eth1
/sbin/ifconfig eth0 promisc
/sbin/ifconfig eth1 promisc
/sbin/ifconfig br0 up
route add default gw dev br0
ebtables -t broute -A BROUTING -p IPv4 --ip-protocol 6  --ip-destination-port 80 -j redirect  --redirect-target ACCEPT --log --log-level=info --log-prefix="EBTAB" --log-ip
/sbin/iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING  -i br0 -p tcp --dport 80  -j REDIRECT --to-port 3128

after i did this,no log come and no packets in iptables's nat table
sorry for my bad english
Anyone have a suggestion on how to manage the transparent proxy mode inside the vlans?
We have a custom mobile browser developed by a third party. When viewing one website in particular, we see a page not displayed error.

The vendor states that the web server is responding with a Connection:Close when it should be using Connection:Keep-Alive.

Wanted to get some background information before we proceeded from any web server experts.

Thanks in advance!
I found this in another question and tried it. However, I'm not sure how accurate it is and I also need a Mbps output.
Can someone edit this for me for the output I am needing.


        BAND_TIME="$(date +"%F %T")"

        CSTATS=`curl -m 30 -w '%{speed_download}\t%{time_namelookup}\t%{time_total}\n' -o /dev/null -s`
        BITSPS=`echo $CSTATS | awk '{print $1}' | sed 's/\..*//'`
        DNS_TIME=`echo $CSTATS | awk '{print $2}'`
        TOTAL_TIME=`echo $CSTATS | awk '{print $3}'`

        echo Time="$BAND_TIME"
        echo Bitsps="$BITSPS"
        echo Dns_time="$DNS_TIME"
        echo Total_time="$TOTAL_TIME"

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Using command line bash on Linux, trying to find a solution which allows sending a file and it's contents, intact with newlines, etc, to another host.  Am finding countless examples and suggestions but not one that works for me at least, so far.

I won't bother posting all of the variations I've tried but here is the last I've tried.

curl -s --cacert /etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt -u "1234:4321" --data "@/tmp/testfile"
> POST / HTTP/1.1
> Authorization: Basic MDgfYhfsDBfgfvfgOSgTssU0wam12V245b1daeGFrYVRBbmpSeW1EN2tNcVlXVXZrbUU=
> User-Agent: curl/7.38.0
> Host:
> Accept: */*
> Content-Length: 5603
> Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
> Expect: 100-continue
< HTTP/1.1 100 Continue
< HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
< Date: Tue, 20 Sep 2016 17:53:50 GMT
< Server: Apache
< Cache-Control: no-cache
< Content-Length: 0
< Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8

I've also read that you need to use -o for output which I've tried, etc etc. There must be way of doing this.

The resulting file on the remote host should contain the user name being used to send it.
So, in this case, 1234-testfile
I had this question after viewing Going from HTTPS to HTTP.

I have basically the same problem as the question above. But I think we have scattered links through out the site that have https in them, so https links are staying in the searches. We don't want to scour through the site for them because we're not really working actively with it anymore.

It's on Debian GNU/Linux server. I tried using the below code and it doesn't work. I assume it's because it's checking for ssl to be on and since it isn't it skips the rule? I couldn't find any examples searching that were different than this.

RewriteEngine On
RewriteCond %{HTTPS} ^on$
RewriteRule ^(.*)$$1 [NC,L,R]

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Thanks for any help.

HTTP Protocol

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. Hypertext is structured text that uses logical links (hyperlinks) between nodes containing text. HTTP is the protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext. HTTP functions as a request-response protocol in the client-server computing model. HTTP is designed to permit intermediate network elements to improve or enable communications between clients and servers. HTTP is an application layer protocol designed within the framework of the Internet Protocol Suite; it presumes an underlying and reliable transport layer protocol.

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HTTP Protocol