Internet Protocols

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries, organized in abstraction layers, traditionally called "Link," "Internet," "Transport" and "Application”. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet. IP defines packet structures that encapsulate the data to be delivered. It also defines addressing methods that are used to label the datagram with source and destination information.

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the internet here will go out for 5 - 10 seconds several times a day.

Wondering if there's anything you can see that's a problem or just a loose connection on the pole somewhere (and how likely will they find it?).

I was using a new netgear docsis 3 modem and having this problem.
Got a Cablevision supplied motorola docsis 2 modem and put that in and problem continues
theres only the cable modem on the coax. No TVs.
Connections I can get to - both sides of the lightning arrester / grounding tap outside and the cable connection onto the modem are tight and cablevision installed connectors.
i set up to ping -t.  It'll go on for a while with time of 10 - 15 ms.  then it'll just stop for 5 - 10 seconds.  Then start back up with 10 - 15ms.
I was getting similar error messages on the netgear router, now these messages.  I'd think any systemic / DHCP address problems would have the connection be out completely, not for 5 - 10 seconds every once in a while. But are these errors indicative of other issues?

I called cablevision and they poo pood their old surfboard modem. So I put the netgear back in the network.  Got the errors in the last picture.  And internet went out for minutes and I rebooted the modem and it came back up.

There's a picture below of the signals at the netgear and it has a 6db attenuator in it. the rep said signals are ok / better with the 6db in there than without it.  But the uncorrected errors?  the outage needing a reboot?  And the …
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I'm having trouble with connecting to several sites and apps, there's something missing all the time and every time I go through guides to solve these problems, there's no improvement.

Doesn't seem like a malware's causing the problem since I scan my computer periodically using Malwarebytes.

Hi, My SEO team is having me create directories for certain keywords, like /affordable-meal-delivery/, so that the URL is

The only way I know to do this is to create the directory and then have an index.html inside the directory. But I don't like having so many pages called index.html, for one thing I am afraid of overwriting one to another.

This site is able to do it without an index.html:  - if I add index.html to that, it goes to a page not found.

We are on an Apache server. So it looks to me like this:

But I have ten or so of those directories with an index.html in each. How can I do this without the index.html. Ideally, I would want the page inside the directory to be affordable-meal-delivery.html. Can I use an htaccess file to do this?

I did a speed test from several speed test sites for my 1 gig Internet circuit and my download and upload are so different. The upload seems fine but the download is so off. It never passes 250Mbps. I have another 300 Mbps with another ISP and when I tested it with the speedtest sites, the download and upload are almost the same, around 250Mbps.
The tech was onsite and tested with his test set and he said that he gets around 900Mbps upload and download.
How do I explain this? Can I trust the 1G circuit provider? What is the explanation for the speedtest sites reported big differences between download and upload.

Any thoughts? Thanks
Internet through Cable line or Satellite

I have read online that there are fiber cables ran through the Oceans to reach other continents in order to provide internet connection.
I have also read that internet connection is provided through Satellites somewhere in the Orbit, and there is no need to run cables from one end of the globe to another.

I am not sure which approach is used to have people in the world connect to Internet.

Any Expert to shade some lights on this ?

Simple way to monitor the internet connection to a remote server.
I would like to monitor the internet connection to several remote servers and then be notifed via email if the servers are offline.
Or alternatively. I would like to monitor 1 static IP to see if it is active on the internet (which should tell me if there is internet at the remote site).. and send me an email when
that IP loses internet ...
Is there a way to do this?
If yes, what do you suggest?
I'm currently facing an issue with CUPS. I recently discovered that the job ID is always appended before the job-name when CUPS sends out the job.

Due to requirements, I'm required to send a file between servers, 1 of them being a print server, and the other using CUPS. They must communicate with each other using the "Internet Printing Protocol (http)" mode on the CUPS interface.

The print server is receiving the print job properly, and the job is able to print successfully, except for one minor detail: the filename on the printer is always shown to be "#### - Original filename" instead of just "Original filename", where #### is the number representing the job ID.

After conducting some research and poring through the logs, I found that CUPS' http backend (/usr/lib/cups/backend/http) was the cause of this appending of job ID, resulting in the "job-name" IPP attribute to be changed.

I have 2 questions:

Is there a setting or configuration value that can remove this appending of job ID?

Is there a way to modify http backend by ourselves to adjust its behaviour? (I opened up the http backend file in an attempt to modify it ourselves, but it seems to be an executable instead of a CUPS filter, so I'm unsure of how to go about doing it)

Any help would be greatly appreciated!
When you type in in a web browser, theres all the work of resolving the name into an ip address and then your packets are sent from your computer to the EE web server and vice versa, going through routers around the web, right?

Contrast that with an email?  I was explaining to someone that large attachments in an email might cause the email to not be delivered as it routes its way through the web. Then I wondered... is the email actually going through  mail servers on the web and being reforwarded? Or just routers (on the backbone?). If it's just routers, do they actually care how big the total email is? It's just a lot of packets being sent in the same direction.

ie - is there really a limit to an attachment size limit in email OTHER THAN at the sender or receiver email server?  Yes, the sender server or receiving server can set limits to the size of the attachment.  But after resolving the MX record and sending to the receiving server.... what could get in the way?

When click on an email link in Internet Explorer, it does not open the default email program, but a new page opens up asking to add an email account instead.   Can this be fixed so that the default email program is opened?
can somebody tell me the steps when one browse the internet, how we browse the internet

like how computer talks so we yahoo or any other website

do we contact root hints server or how isp DNS server works?
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Dumb question.  Do the companies have to register their domains based on their country code?  For example, if my business in Canada, do I have to register as ?  What prevents me to register as .com?
I have been doing some research into setting up redundant ISPs on the PANs (Palo Alto firewalls), and it seems that if we don't want to run BGP for that site, the best alternative seems to be PBF.  Am I on the right track with that?  Are there other alternatives?

We have a Windows 10 PC connected via a wired ethernet connection to our router.

To test the stability of this ethernet connection, we have run a continuous ping test via command line.

One of the results back have displayed that 1 out of 4 packets were lost (25% loss).

This test was initially ran to test for disconnects or problems with the wired internet connection.

What is the significance of the ping test and how does the 25% loss reflect on wired internet connection for this PC?

Hi all

I have1Cisco ASA 5525x, 1 3900 Router and 2 Internet connections. what is the best deployment method to supported what I have.

1. Should both Internet connections connect to Firewall Interfaces ?

2. Should  Both Internet connections connect to the Internet router ?

Any advice will be much appreciated.
I added a Content-Security-Policy that works in Firefox and Chrome but not Safari.  I am using Safari 10.1.2. In Safari I get the error:
“Refused to apply a stylesheet because its hash, its nonce, or 'unsafe-inline' does not appear in the style-src directive of the Content Security Policy.”
So, I tried adding ‘unsafe-inline' to style-src but I still get the error in Safari.  I have some hashes in style-src (that were provided by Chrome), and when I get rid of the hash, Safari gives no errors as long as I have ‘unsafe-inline’ written.  If I put the hash back in, I get the error again in Safari.  The other browsers work fine.  Does anyone know what I can do to get the Content-Security-Policy working in Safari?  Any help is greatly appreciated!
Issue #1: I currently have 1 gig Internet speed (service) from my local cable provider BlueStream.  For months I have had an annoying intermittent problem with their service.  There are times when the service will completely go down multiple times in one day, but each time it goes down, it may be for only 1 or 2 minutes and then it right back up as if nothing had happened.  The modem did NOT reboot, perhaps the indicator light may go out and back on, but that's it.  This happens about 5 or 6 days per month, sometimes more.  

Issue #2: The second issue is when I go to ANY random site, the web page will NOT load properly or not load at all.  However, as soon as I hit F5 to reload it pops right on in a millisecond.  I get this on 3 different browsers, Edge, Firefox and Chrome.  I have tested my connection MANY times using and usually the tests results are very good to excellent. BlueStream has been out to my home 5 different times for these issues.  I am on my 4th modem and two different models.  They have also rewired the outside lines and checked most everything outside of my house.  Nothing has fixed this issue.  

In contrast, I disconnected my ethernet connection and reconnected to my internet hot spot on my iphone and at only 8MB/s I was loading pages faster with no problems as I outlined in issue #2.

By pure luck, the last time they were out they actually SAW this problem "live" for the first time (Issue #2) and saw it happen.  …
Dear Experts,

We have two data centers, one is in New York and the second is in Chicago. Our vendor in the Chicago Data Center is ceasing the ISP Services. We have a circuit between both data center. We have deployed squid proxy on a Ubuntu 16.04 Server in the New York Data Center and are planning forward the internet traffic from the servers in the Chicago Data Center using the Squid Proxy.

We are able to forward the standard internet port i.e 80, 443, but we are unable to forward non standard internet ports e.g. 11002, 55005 that we might use for other data services.

When I run a sniffer from our main office firewall to check the incoming traffic coming from the Chicago data center via 11002 and its is coming via the Chicago ISP instead of the New York Squid Proxy Server.

Any help will be appreciated

Thank you,


Please find diagram attached. Please let
Hi everyone, i was connected to a VPN for a few days and everything works fine. But yesterday, from overnight, the client Junos Pulse Secure starts giving me the error 1329 while i was trying to reach a connection to the server.

I work with this VPN in different computers but it just throw me that error in this one ( which, by the way, is the last one i start using).

I'll be grateful if anyone can bring me some light over this.

Not getting internet on laptop

Error is dns probe finished no internet

Windows diagnostics not helping

How to fix this
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Virgin Media is my broadband provider in the UK.
I have members of my household utilising the broadband for running nodes etc for 24/7 bit coining mining etc.  Whilst this not only consumes wasted electricity that I am paying for, it is also consuming my bandwidth.

What settings can I change in my Virgin Media superhub to essentially block all these types of activities and others which I might not be fully clued up on.  I don't want to block individual PCs by mac filtering, only port numbers and such sites other than web sites and youtube etc.

I don't want to enter into any moral debates with individuals here either pls, just facts to block my router from running these type of services.
Ping: 34 ms
Download: 16.46 Mbps
Upload: 16.63

Hello Experts!
very happy new year !!

One of our customers uninstalled a program they had for several months its called "FACEBOOK BLOCKER."
Now they need to access facebook for some of their activities so they uninstalled that software

Problem is still they cant access...

although it's not our responsibility they do rely on us for these little things...

I have reset internet options but still, Facebook is blocked...
What else can I do here?

I a

For about a week now, Google defaults to Germany and our ISP (G3) investigated their settings and said they’re all correct.
We’re a little stumped as to the cause and need some help troubleshooting.

William Lumu
If I do geolocation on the IP of a Squarespace site I get the location of the Squarespace server, which doesn't tell me anything about where the business is located.  So how can I find all the Squarespace websites  for businesses located in a certain area, maybe a zipcode or a county?

Thanks for any ideas.
Hello EE,

Our VPN firewall prevents ipV6 (blocks) so our Visual Studio debugger is failing to connect.
I wonder if anyone knows of a way in Visual Studio to turn off ipV6 and only use IPv4.

Internet Protocols

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries, organized in abstraction layers, traditionally called "Link," "Internet," "Transport" and "Application”. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet. IP defines packet structures that encapsulate the data to be delivered. It also defines addressing methods that are used to label the datagram with source and destination information.

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Internet Protocols